What is Bone Marrow disease? Before we go there, we need to explain a little about bone marrow. The bone marrow is a springy and soft and bone tissue, it is a place for hematopoietic cell production. What is classified in hematopoietic cells is red blood cells or Erythrocytes, white blood cells such as myelocytes and granulocytes and platelets such as thrombocytes.
The bones that have marrow include sternum or the middle of the chest, pelvis, and thigh bone.
The bone marrow contains stem cells which are called primitive cells. Stem Cells can turn into other cells needed in the body.
So, these stem cells differentiate to become other cells needed such as white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets. As a place for cell production, the bone marrow only releases adult cells in the bloodstream. In addition to the stem cells in the bone marrow, it turns out that in the bone marrow also contains fibrous tissue that supports it.
Prime Bone Marrow Problems
If the bone marrow is damaged or disease, then the production of mature blood cells will be disrupted and have abnormalities. It could also be a form of problem is the disruption of precurosor or predcessor immature cells. The main shape or type of problems related to the bone marrow are:
- Increased production of one type of cell, thereby reducing the production of other types of cells.
- An increase in one cell line because the cell is not dead in normal time
- Producing non-mature plot cells, or cells that are not functioning properly.
- Produce fragile cells that die easily or the cells produced are very small
- Increased fiber tissue and this supports abnormal cell formation and decreased cell number.
- Lack of Iron Formation of RBC Formation
- Spreading other diseases into the marrow
Diseases of Different Cell Types
Types of cells and their functions:
White Blood Cells (WBCS)
White blood cells are quite variations and it consists of 5 different types:
- Neutrophils (Also Called Granulocytes)
The type of white blood cells plays a different role in protecting the body and protecting the body from external disorders (disease).
For example, white blood cells called neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils kill and digest bacteria. While Monocytes Kill Bacteria, but in production faster than the neutrophils and tend to have a longer life.
While white blood cells called lymphocytes consist of two types, this is B and T. T cells distinguish between themselves and other cells, and B cells circulate in the blood, produce anti -body and protein attached to the specific antigen from viruses or bacteria that attack . This is basically a form of resistance of white blood cells against disease.
Red Blood Cells (RBCS)
Red blood cells are small -shaped cells without nucleus, the task of red blood cells is to carry iron in the form of heme protein or called hemoglobin. Hemoglobin allows red blood cells to transport oxygen throughout the body’s tissues.
Platelets or thrombocytes
Platelets are a small part of a large cell called Megakaryocytes. Thrombocites or platelets circulate in the blood and are tasked with freezing blood or down the leaky hole in blood vessels so as to prevent the discharge of blood, this is a form of healing from various wounds.
Diseases and Disorders of the Bone Marrow
Anything that includes bone marrow disorders? Among the bone marrow disorders are diseases known as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and myeloproliferative disorders and others.
Leukemia is a form of white blood cell cancer and affects one of five types of white blood cells. This cancer affects the cell line, it starts to imitate the blockage of the bone marrow without stopping and this makes the marrow unable to produce other cells in normal amounts.
Leukemia cloning cells produced are not functioning and they do not attack infections. So someone with a condition of leukemia like this often experiences infection, bleeding, bruises, anemia, sweating at night, and bone pain and joints.
The spleen usually filters blood and removes old blood cells, turns large. Also, lymph nodes that hold white blood cells are also enlarged.
If noted, blood cells show immature blood cells from bone marrow or called blast cells. But immature cells are released due to excessive production in the bone marrow.
– Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS)
In addition to leukemia, bone marrow disorders are also called myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). MDS is a disease that produces abnormal bone marrow cells. Blood cells that are produced are insufficient, and someone with this condition experiences anemia, bleeding and infection.
Myelodysplastic syndrome or MDS is grouped by how cells in the bone marrow and blood stains are visible under a microscope. So this depends on how the blood stains are visible when using a microscope. Including one of them is anemia, this is a disease that is resistant to treatment, usually this disease is inherited by genetic. But if this disease is unsuccessful treated, over time MDS will turn into acute myeloid leukemia.
Also check out: Hematopoiesis, What Do You Know About It
– Myeloproliferative Disorders (MPD)
There is also a form of disorder or bone marrow disease called myeloproliferative disorders (MPd). The meaning of the word “myelo” is the Bone marrow DNA MPd signifies the proliferation of bone marrow, so this is a group of diseases.
This condition shows that there is an immature marrow cell production. Marked by the release of immature marrow cells or from other precursors released in the bloodstream of the body needs.
So, in the case of MPD, the marrow cells released are mixtures of cells in various stages of maturity.
– Aplastic anemia
In addition, the type of bone marrow disorder is anemia aplastic. This is a condition that indicates a loss of red blood cell production. This can be caused by defects in stem cells that produce them, or it could be due to the bone marrow environment.
If the patient is exposed to chemicals such as benzene, radiation or certain chemical drugs, then he can suffer injuries.
– Iron Deficiency Anemias
Anemia deficiency can cause smaller or defective RBC when released from the bone marrow. He is pale, small, and this is called the red blood cells.
Anemia can also occur due to the functioning of Erythropoietin or lacking in number, this is a chemical produced by the kidney DNA stimulates the production of red blood cells.
Also see: Circulatory System in Humans
Other diseases and disorders of the bone marrow
In addition to some bone marrow disorders that have been mentioned above, there are several other bone marrow disorders, and this includes:
- Plasma cell disorders or plasma cell dyscasia: this is the excess production of one clone of B lymphocyte and its antibody protein.
- Lymphoma and other cancer that spread into the marrow and affect the cell production process
- Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: This condition causes the production of platelets to decrease and cause bleeding.
- Unexplained Cytopenia: This condition causes a reduction in the production of all types of cells
- Other causes of bone marrow disorders are small tumor cells in childhood, mast cell disease, metabolic bone disease, disseminated granulomatous disease, primary amyloidosis and others.
- Depression in the bone marrow can occur due to cancer chemotherapy, can also occur due to bone transplants and can also be due to cancer radiation therapy.
That’s everything about bone marrow disease. Hopefully we can add our knowledge about health and increase our enthusiasm in maintaining health.