Before we discuss about how to pray Janazah, we should first get to know what the janazah prayer is and how it is in Islam. Janazah prayer is a prayer which is fardhu kifayah. This is the opposite of fardhu ‘ain, if fardhu’ ain means mandatory or individual khitab (command), then fardhu kifayah is khitab (Allah’s order) which must be carried out, even if it is done by one person only. If it has been done by one person, the obligations towards others have been released, meaning that the person who did not do it is no longer in a sin. However, if it is not done by anyone, it can cause sin for all people.
However, janazah prayer best done by many people. The more people perform the janazah prayers, of course the du’a for janazah are getting more, and this is getting better. So, to perform the janaza prayer, we must know how the procedure is and how to pray janazah. God willing, in this article, we will discuss everything about the funeral or janazah prayer. It should be noted that the procedure for this prayer is different from the side of the du’a that is read to women, men, as well as to the children.
How to Perform Pray Janazah
In performing the janazah prayer, we must complete all the pillars (arkan) of the janaza prayer. There is a fundamental difference between the janazah prayer and other prayers. There are no Ruku’, i’tidal, and prostration prayers, only standing with four takbirs, and in each takbir there is a prayer must be read.
Because of this fundamental difference, some scholars (ulama) do not consider it a prayer but as a prayer, so there is an opinion that says it is permissible to perform janaza prayer without wudu, but this is a weak opinion. There is a strong opinion, this is still called prayer, but in doing so, people must perform ablution (wudu).
Pillars of Janazah Prayers and Procedures for This Implementation
Below we look at the Rukun of prayers of janazah and Du’a that are read in each takbir.
1. Intention (niyyah)
The procedure for how to pray janazah, the first is the intention and this includes the pillars of prayer. The intention of the janaza prayer is the same as other prayers, which is to do it during takbiratul ihram and must accompany takbiratul ihram. The intention must exist from the time of the alif “Allahuakbar” to Ra “akbar”. In takbir there are several things that must be considered as in regular prayer, namely Qasad: deliberately performing, Ta’yiin: determining prayer, here namely janazah prayer and ta’radh: determining fardhu. However, regarding ta’radh there are differences in the opinion of the scholars (ulama). Some say it is mandatory to have t’aradh and some say it is not obligatory. Khilaf (difference) that occurs here is the same as mistakes that occur in ta’radh in the intention of other prayers.
In the intention of janazah praying, the person praying is not obliged to keep the body (to determine who the body is) like the zaidun, the umar or others. It is not even obligatory to determine whether it is a girl or a boy. It is not obligatory to do, but it is good to do it.
Also read: The Best Dua After Salah
If the janazah is man, then the intentions are as follows:
اُصَلِّى عَلٰى هَذَاالْمَيِّتِ اَرْبَعَ تَكْبِرَاتٍ فَرْضَ الْكِفَايَةِ مَأْمُوْمًا ِللهِ تَعَالٰى
Niyyat in latin language: Ushalli ‘ala hadzal mayyiti arba’a takbirotin fardhol kifayati ma’muman lillahi ta’ala (for you who don’t read arabac)
Meaning: I pray the body of this man four takbir fardu kifayah as a makmum / imam, because of Allah Ta’alla.
If the janazah is a woman, then the intention to pray janazah is like this:
اُصَلِّى عَلٰى هَذِهِ الْمَيْتَةِ اَرْبَعَ تَكْبِرَاتٍ فَرْضَ الْكِفَايَةِ مَأْمُوْمًا ِللهِ تَعَالٰى
The niyyah in latin: Usholli ‘ala hadzihil mayyitati arba’a takbirotin fardhol kifayati ma’amuman lillahi ta’ala (for those who not read the arabic)
Meaning: I pray the body of this woman four takbir fardu kifayah as a makmum / imam, because of Allah Ta’alla.
That is the complete intention of praying the janaza, but we are not obliged to intend the janaza what its name is, as well as whether it is male or female. So in the case of this intention, a person may intend briefly as follows, even though he is a congregation:
اصلى على هذا الميت
Meaning: I pray over this janazah.
It is also permissible for (makmum) to intend the janazah prayer as the intention of the priest (imam), “I pray as intended by the Imam”. Minhajuth thalibin p, 331.
However, if someone intends to pray the janaza on the certain people, for example: zaidun or Umar, and it turns out that janazah is Abu Bakar, then the prayer is invalid. Likewise, if he intends to pray on the a woman and it turns out that it is a man’s janazah then the prayer is invalid. This is the same as in other prayers.
2. Four takbir
Four times takbir is the second pillar of janazah prayer, so if a person performs janazah prayers with two takbir or three takbir then his prayer is invalid. The hadith of the Prophet Muhammad regarding the four times of takbir is a hadith taken from ibn Abbas RA.
انه صلم صلى على قبر بعد ما دفن, فكبر عليه اربعا
Meaning: “Rasulullah SAW. Pray over a grave after being grounded, then he takbir four times”
From the above hadith shows that takbir in janazah prayer is four times takbir and this is made as a pillar of janazah prayer.
What if someone has a last five (5) times takbir in his shalah? According to Aishah’s opinion, this does not invalidate prayer because it is considered exaggerating dhikr – if it is done on purpose. However, if he does takbir five times due to forgetting, then this is not a mistake among the scholars of fiqh, or it is agreed that the scholars of fiqh say it is not canceled.
Also read: Adhan Word or the Muslim call to Prayer
However, if it is carried out in congregation, and the priest (imam) performs five (5) takbeers, then it is permissible for him not to follow that extra takbir based on Aishah’s (strong) opinion. If so, what did you do during the fifth takbir? Makmum may immediately greet or wait for the priest to greet the priest, but he does not do takbir for the fifth time like the priest.
So how the du’a is recited in each takbir, let us consider the following:
The first takbir:
After the first takbir or takbiratul ihram, it is obligatory to read the surah al Fatihah. Surah al fatihah is one of the pillars of funeral prayer, [we will mention it again in the third pillar]. However, the reading of the surah al-Fatihah can also be read at the takbir apart from the first takbir. This is as stated by Imam Nawawi in the Minhajud thalibin book, the following reads the surah al fatihah:
بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ
اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ رَبِّ الْعٰلَمِيْنَ
مٰلِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّيْنِ
اِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَاِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِيْنُ
اِھْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَـقِيْمَ
صِرَاطَ الَّذِيۡنَ اَنۡعَمۡتَ عَلَيۡهِمۡ ۙ غَيۡرِ الۡمَغۡضُوۡبِ عَلَيۡهِمۡ وَلَا الضَّآلِّيۡنَ
1. In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.
2. All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.
3. The Beneficent, the Merciful.
4. Master of the Day of Judgment.
5. Thee do we serve and Thee do we beseech for help.
6. Keep us on the right path.
7. The path of those upon whom Thou hast bestowed favors. Not (the path) of those upon whom Thy wrath is brought down, nor of those who go astray.
After the second takbir, the person who performed the funeral prayer recited Du’a (shalawat) to Rasulullah SAW. The recitation of shalawat upon Rasulullah after the second takbir is obligatory and this is the pillar of janazah prayer as well. There are many kinds of salawat on Rasulullah SAW, the best one is salawat ibrahimiyah.
اَللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلىَ مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلىَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَماَ صَلَّيْتَ عَلىَ إِبْرَاهِيْمَ وَعَلىَ آلِ إِبْرَاهِيْمَ إِنـَّكَ حَمِيْدٌ مَجِيْدٌ اَللَّهُمَّ باَرِكْ عَلىَ مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلىَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَماَ باَرَكْتَ عَلىَ إِبْرَاهِيْمَ وَعَلىَ آلِ إِبْرَاهِيْمَ إِنـَّكَ حَمِيْدٌ مَجِيْدٌ
Salawat on the Prophet SAW. with Latin script (for those who can’t read Arabic characters): Allohumma sholli ‘alaa sayyidina Muhammad wa ‘alaa aali sayyidina Muhammad kamaa shollaita ‘alaa sayyidina Ibroohiima wa ‘alaa aali sayyidina Ibroohim. Allohumma baarik ‘alaa sayyidina Muhammad wa ‘alaa aali sayyidina Muhammad kamaa baarokta ‘alaa sayyidina Ibroohiima wa ‘alaa aali sayyidina Ibroohim, innaka hamiidum majiid).
Meaning: O Allah, give mercy to Prophet Muhammad and his family as you have given grace to Prophet Ibrahim and his family. Verily, You are Praised, Glorious. O Allah, give blessings to Prophet Muhammad and the family of Prophet Muhammad as you have given blessings to Prophet Ibrahim and the family of Prophet Ibrahim. Verily, You are Praised, Glorious.
It is a complete form of prayer to be recited. The recitation of the obligatory prayers or those that are harmonious is prayer for the Prophet SAW, while prayers for the Prophet’s family are not the pillars of prayer but the sunnat is recited (better read)
After that we do takbir the third time and then instead of takbir we recite prayers for the janazah. Prayer for the janazah at the third takbir is also the pillar of the janazah prayer. Then it cannot be left behind, and if it is left, it is not valid to pray the body. Reading prayers for the deceased should not be done in other places and must be at the third takbir. At least the prayer that is read is اللهم ارحمه اللهم اغفرله. If he is a man, if it is a woman then the dhamir “hu” is replaced with “ha”.
The following is a more complete prayer to be recited at the third takbir.
Prayers for the men of janazah
اَللّٰهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لَهُ وَارْحَمْهُ وَعَافِهِ وَاعْفُ عَنْهُ، وَأَكْرِمْ نُزُلَهُ، وَوَسِّعْ مَدْخَلَهُ، وَاغْسِلْهُ بِالْمَاءِ وَالثَّلْجِ وَالْبَرَدِ، وَنَقِّهِ مِنَ الذُّنُوبِ والْخَطَايَا كَمَا يُنَقَّى الثَّوْبُ الْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الدَّنَسِ، وَأَبْدِلْهُ دَارًا خَيْرًا مِنْ دَارِهِ، وَاَهْلًا خَيْرًا مِنْ اَهْلِهِ، وَزَوْجًا خَيْرًا مِنْ زَوْجِهِ، وَقِهِ فِتْنَةَ الْقَبْرِ وَعَذَابِ النَّار
Meaning: O Allah, forgive and have mercy on him. Save him and forgive him. Give him honor, and expand his grave. Bathe him in water, snow and dew. Clean him from various faults, as Thou hast cleaned the white clothes of all filth. Replace for him a house that is better than his house, and a wife who is better than her husband. And protect him from the slander of the grave and the punishment of hell.
Du’a for woman janazah
اَللّٰهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لَهَا وَارْحَمْهُا وَعَافِهَا وَاعْفُ عَنْهَا، وَأَكْرِمْ نُزُلَهَا، وَوَسِّعْ مَدْخَلَهَا، وَاغْسِلْهَا بِالْمَاءِ وَالثَّلْجِ وَالْبَرَدِ، وَنَقِّهَا مِنَ الذُّنُوبِ والْخَطَايَا كَمَا يُنَقَّى الثَّوْبُ الْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الدَّنَسِ، وَأَبْدِلْهَا دَارًا خَيْرًا مِنْ دَارِهَا، وَاَهْلًا خَيْرًا مِنْ اَهْلِهَا، وَزَوْجًا خَيْرًا مِنْ زَوْجِهَا، وَقِهَا فِتْنَةَ الْقَبْرِ وَعَذَابِ النَّار
Meaning: O Allah, forgive and have mercy on her. Save her and forgive her. Honor her, and expand the place of her burial. Bathe her in water, snow and dew. Clean her from various faults, as Thou hast cleaned the white clothes of all filth. Replace for her a house that is better than her house, and a husband who is better than her husband. And protect her from the slander of the grave and the punishment of hell.
After reading the janazah prayer, then performing the fourth takbir and reciting the Du’a in it. This is not the pillar of prayer but the sunnat is recited, but the takbir is harmonious or obligatory.
اللَّهُمَّ لاَ تَحْرِمْنَا أَجْرَهُ وَلاَ تَفْتِنَّا بَعْدَهُ وَ اغْفِرْ لَنَا وَلَهُ
(Allohumma laa tahrimnaa ajrohu wa laa taftinnaa ba’dahu waghfirlanaa walahu)
If the janazah is woman then the dhamir “hu” is replaced with “ha” as follows:
اللَّهُمَّ لاَ تَحْرِمْنَا أَجْرَهَا وَلاَ تَفْتِنَّا بَعْدَهَا وَ اغْفِرْ لَنَا وَلَهَا
Meaning: “O Allah, do not forbid us from her reward and do not try us after her departure. Forgive us and forgive her”.
The third pillar of janazah prayer is to read the greeting (salam) as in other prayers, the mean is first SALAM, while the second SALAM is circumcision. Talking about the perfection of reading SALAM, a strong opinion is sunnat reciting salam to wabarakatuh السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَم وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَ بَرَكَاتُهُ is different from ordinary prayer which only reaches warahmatullah.
4. Read the Surah al-Fatihah
This is as we have explained in the first takbir above
5. Salawat on the Prophet SAW
The fifth pillar is to recite Du’a or shalawat to Prophet SAW at the second takbir, this is as we have explained in the second takbir above. Salawat to aal or the family of the prophet is the circumcision and not a pillar.
6. Read a Dua for janaza
Furthermore, what becomes the pillar of the janazah prayer is reciting the du’a for the janazah as we have explained in the third takbir above.
7. Stand up for those who can
Performing the janazah prayer is like performing other prayers, which must be in a standing state unless unable to stand. This is based on the opinion of the School (strong opinion) in minhaju thalibin.
Meanwhile, the opinion of muqabil or opponents of strong opinion says that there is a line of opinion of ashab imam shafi’e in living the opinion of ash hab mutaqaddam. One of them is standing circumcision because it is similar to sunnat praying in terms of can to be left out. And another opinion says that it is obliged to stand up if he is the only one who performs the prayer (specially for him).
Raising two hands when takbir is not a pillar but sunnat salah, this applies to all takbir in janazah prayers. Among the sunnat, the funeral prayer is reducing the reading of the fatihah, whether done during the day or at night. But there is an opinion that says sunnat jihar (raising your voice) if you do it at night, this is Dhaif’s opinion.
While the reading of the du’a iftitah is not circumcised, it is different from ordinary prayer which is circumcised for reading. However, in the funeral prayer, it is still advisable to read ta’awuz (a’uzubillahiminasy-syaithaanirrajiim).
The Virtue of Perform Janazah Prayers
Doing janazah prayers even though it is fardhu kifayah, but he is very extraordinary and great in the sight of Allah. Allah rewards those who perform janaza prayers as big as one qirath or as big as a mountain of uhud. Meanwhile, if you pray or shalah and deliver him to the grave, the reward will increase to two qiraths or two mountains of uhud.
The virtue of this funeral prayer is based on the hadith of the Prophet Muhammad. as follows:
مَنْ صَلَّى عَلَى جَنَازَةٍ وَلَمْ يَتْبَعْهَا فَلَهُ قِيرَاطٌ فَإِنْ تَبِعَهَا فَلَهُ قِيرَاطَانِ. قِيلَ وَمَا الْقِيرَاطَانِ قَالَ أَصْغَرُهُمَا مِثْلُ أُحُدٍ
Meaning: “Whoever performs the janaza prayer and does not deliver it to the grave, then he gets one qiradh of pahala (ujrah). If he accompanies or delivers it to the grave then he gets two qiraths. There is a shahabat asking, What are two qiraths, Ya Rasulullah SAW. The Prophet replied: of both are as big as the mountain of uhud “Hadith according to Muslim HR.
That is among the advantages and virtues of the janazah prayer, hopefully we will be heartened to perform the funeral prayers and deliver the corpse to burial.
Some Hadith About Death
1. In a hadith narrated by Asysyhaab: The most glorious death in the sight of Allah is the death of people who belong to Shuhada.
2. Hadith narrated by Imam Ahmad: There is nothing that is experienced by humans that is greater than anything created by Allah, compared to the event of death. Because for Him death is the lightest thing, compared to the life that must be lived after death.
Also see: Hadith About Studying
3. In the hadith narrated by Bukhari: Do not want to die just because you are experiencing hardships or difficulties. If it must be done, say “O Allah keep me alive, with a life that is good for me. But forgive me if it is the best for me.”
4. In the hadith narrated by Tabrhani: Suffice to die as a lesson, and enough faith as self-wealth.
5. HR Ad-Dailami: Often remember death. Because someone who remembers death a lot, his heart will be made alive by Allah and the pain will be relieved for him at death itself.
6. In the hadith narrated by Muslims: Do not die unless you are being kind to Allah SWT.
7. HR Ahmad: A friend once asked Rasulullah SAW, O Messenger of Allah, the bodies of unbelievers had just passed us. Can we stand up? Rasulullah answered, stand up. Because you really are not standing to honor his body. But to honor the One who took his life, namely Allah.
8. HR Ad-Dailami: The bodies that are in their graves are the same as drowning people who are asking for help. He will wait for prayers from his parents, children, friends, or trusted relatives. If that du’a came to him, he would be more preferable to him than the world and everything in it.
9. Mashabih Assunnah: A janazah person can be tortured inside because of the crying from his family. This means that if the family of the janazah is left behind crying and screaming excessively. However, weeping in a natural way is still allowed by religion.