Human Anatomy – Humans around the world have different characters, but every human being must have the same human anatomy. So, our interesting discussion this time is about the structure and anatomy of the human body.
The purpose of making this post is to provide information about how the structure and structure of the human body actually is, so that we can find out that the system of our organs is like that. Before we discuss anatomy, let’s first take a look at what anatomy is.
Anatomy is a loan word from Greek, in Greek it is called “ana” and “Tome”. Ana means decomposition, while Tome is cutting. So, the meaning of scientific anatomy is the study of the structure and organs of the human body.
The anatomy of the human body is divided into two parts or two levels. This level is called the microscopic and macroscopic level. At the microscopic level it is called histology and at the macroscopic level it is called gross anatomy.
A. Histology or microscopy
The microscopic level is the study of the micro structure of the human body using a microscope. Usually, the micro-health that is studied is about the body tissues of living things. So, it can be said that histology is the study of body tissues.
B. Gross Anatomy or Macroscopic
If histology is studying the smallest part of the body with the aid of a microscope, then macroscopic or gross anatomy is studying the structure of the large human body using the naked eye. In this stage there are two learning models of body anatomy, namely the systemic approach and the regional approach.
– With a regional approach
The regional approach means studying the body structure based on the division into several parts of the body such as the leg area, the stomach area, the hand area, the wrist area, the neck area and others.
– Systemic approach
In a systemic approach, learning about the anatomy of the human body is based on the division of several organ systems. Each of these organ systems has a different function in supporting the proper functioning of the body. This organ system is also supported by other organs so that each system has a pretty good relationship. Here are some of the body’s organ systems that we should know.
- Truss system,
- Nervous system
- The integumentary system
- Urinary system
- Muscle system
- Cardiovascular system
- Digestive system
- Respiratory system,
- Endocrine system
- Immune system
- Reproduction system
All of these organ systems have different functions but all are supported by other organs. In order to properly understand the anatomy of the human body, here is a look at each of these organ systems.
1. The skeletal system
The body skeleton is a very important part of the body in its function. Among the functions of the skeleton are supporting body movement, producing blood cells, forming body posture, storing calcium, and regulating endocrine. These are all very vital in maintaining survival.
Bone does not stand alone, but in its existence it is always supported by other organs so that the bones or skeleton can function properly. The skeleton or individual human bones consists of 206 bones and each of them is supported by ligaments, cartilage or cartilage, muscles, and tendons. The frames are divided into two parts, namely the axial frame and the appendicular frame.
The axial skeleton is a skeleton that extends along the midline of the human body, and this skeleton consists of 80 bones including the ribs, bones of the skull, vertebral bones, sternum, hyoid, and auditory ossicles.
While the other skeleton is appendicular, this skeleton consists of 126 bones consisting of the bones of the chest, bones of the pelvis, lower bones and upper bones.
2. The nervous system
The nerves in the body function to collect, send, process all information. The nervous system in the body is divided into two, namely the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. Included in the nervous system are nerve cells, cerebrospinal fluid, spinal cord, meninges, brain, neuroglia, and the five human senses.
Also read: Human Respiratory System
3. The integumentary system
The integumentary system is the system in a human organ which is the largest and most extensive. Included in the integumentary system are the skin, nails, nerve receptors, glands, and hair. The skin is a part of the body whose job is to protect and protect the body from various external attacks such as disease, chemicals, radiation, sunlight and ultraviolet rays.
Human skin itself consists of three layers, namely the dermis, epidermis and hypodermis. Nails and hair are part of skin extensions that function to strengthen the skin and protect it from environmental damage. While sweat, oil, and wax are produced from glands in the skin called exocrine glands.
4. Urinary system
The parts of the body or organs belonging to the Irin system are the kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra. The function of the kidneys is to filter blood from waste and then produce waste which is excreted as urine. While the ureter serves as a medium to drain urine into the bladder, the bladder is a temporary storage place for urine before it is excreted from the body.
When the bladder is full of urine or urine, the nerves in the bladder send messages to the brain. The brain will command the body to excrete urine through the urethra and this urethra is located or located in the genital area.
5. Muscle system
Furthermore, in studying the anatomy of the human body we need to discuss the muscular system. Muscles have a fairly important function almost the same as the skeleton, namely in moving the body such as running, sitting, eating, laughing, talking, and various other activities that are carried out consciously.
Muscles in the human body are divided into several parts, namely visceral, cardiac, and skeletal. The visceral muscle is the softest type of muscle as found in the intestines, stomach, and muscles in blood vessels, this muscle is also called involuntary muscle because it is controlled by the brain in a state that humans are not aware of.
Also see: The Human Digestive System
The heart muscle is a muscle that only exists in the heart and this is also included in the unconscious muscle because it is the same as blood vessels controlled by the subconscious brain. While skeletal muscles are a type of conscious muscle that we are consciously controlling, they also function to move the body like a skeleton.
6. Cardiovascular system
Furthermore, in gross anatomy there is the cardiovascular system. The cardiovascular system is a system of blood circulation throughout the body. So, this cardiovascular system has the function of pumping blood to all parts of the body and this system consists of blood vessels, heart and blood itself.
The cardiovascular system is related to immunity, but without functioning properly, the body cannot move or die. In circulating blood throughout the body, there are many nutrients that are circulated, hormones, nutrients, and oxygen that are important for the function of the body’s organs.
7. Digestive system
The digestive system is a system that works in smoothing the digestive tract of the body. So, digestion is one of the systems in gross anatomy through a systemic approach.
The digestive tract in the human body starts from the mouth as the first organ through which food passes, including the teeth, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, then the stomach, small intestine and large intestine. This digestive system is responsible for processing food in order to get a supply of nutrients and nutrients from the food which will be absorbed by the body through this digestive system. The end result of digestion is waste or waste that is no longer needed by the body.
8. Respiratory system
Furthermore, there is the respiratory system which belongs to the anatomy of the human body. The important job of the respiratory system is to get oxygen into the body and remove carbon dioxide. In the respiratory system there are three organs that play an important role, these are the lungs, respiratory muscles and lungs.
Meanwhile, the respiratory tract or the way through which oxygen or breath passes is the nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles. Air from outside that is inhaled through the nose will enter the lungs through the respiratory tract earlier. While the respiratory muscles are the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.
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9. Endocrine system
The endocrine system is a glandular control system without duct control that produces hormones that are distributed throughout the body. The endocrine system consists of the body’s glands, as well as the hormones they produce. Among them the endocrine system are the thyroid gland, pituitary gland, parathyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, ovaries, and testicles.
These glands produce many hormones that function for body growth and development, tissue function, mood, body metabolism, the reproductive system and a person’s sleep activities.
10. Immune system
The immune system is often related to the lymphatic system so this system is also called the lymphatic system. The function of the immune system is to protect the body from disease, viruses, bacteria and fungi and other substances that are harmful to the body. So, this lymphatic system supports the immune system or the immune system.
Organs that are included in the lymphatic system are the capillary system, blood vessels, nodes and others. One of the functions of the lymphatic system is to transport white blood cells, also known as lymphocytes. Various diseases that enter the body will be opposed by the lymph fluid in the human body. Because the lymph works like this, its relationship with the immune system cannot be separated.
11. The reproductive system
Finally, the gross anatomy or systemic system is the reproductive system. In humans, as in animals, there are two types of reproduction. These are the male reproductive system and female reproductive system. The two have differences in relation to their systems, but the two reproductive systems work together so that they can produce, this result is called offspring. This offspring is a function of the reproductive system in both human types, male and female.
The reproductive system in men is the scrotum, testes, sex glands, sperm ducts, and penis. While the reproductive system in women is the ovaries, uterus, vulva, fallopian tubes, vagina, breasts and mammary glands.
That is a glimpse of the understanding of human anatomy, including understanding anatomy at the microscopic or macroscopic level. Either by using a histological or gross anatomy or macroscopic approach. Hopefully this article provides a little benefit for all of us.