Human respiratory system – Why do humans need to breathe air in order to survive? Why when we hold our breath feels short? These are simple questions that are often asked by children but sometimes make it difficult for some parents to answer them. We only know that there are lungs that play a role in this breathing, the rest we don’t know and think it’s a miracle.
In fact, this is a science that can be learned and Allah provides an understanding of the knowledge of human breathing. In this short article we will look at and learn about the human respiratory system and its images.
Definition of Breathing
What is breathing? Breathing is the process of exchanging gases between living things and their environment. In simple terms, it might be said that breathing is the process of inhaling air that contains oxygen and releases carbon dioxide which contains water vapor. The essence of breathing is to enter oxygen into the lungs and this is obtained from the air around it or the environment.
Breathing that occurs in humans includes two processes, namely internal and external. The following is the explanation.
1. External Breathing
This is the process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide that takes place between the air and blood in the lungs. So, when someone inhales air, of course this air will enter into the lungs and in here the blood will be bound by diffusion. Well, at the same time the blood containing carbon dioxide is released into the lungs.
Red blood cells enter the capillaries of the lungs, most of the carbon dioxide released is in the form of bicarbonate ions (HCO-3). With the help of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme process, the CO2 and H2O which is only a little left in the bloodstream will diffuse out.
This diffusion process can occur in the lungs (alveolus), due to the partial pressure difference between air and blood in the alveoli. The oxygen concentration and the carbon dioxide concentration in blood and air differ due to the partial pressure.
2. Internal Breathing
Internal breathing differs from external because the process of gas exchange occurs in the tissues of the body. The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs in cellular respiration. When oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) is formed in the lungs, oxygen is released and then goes to fluids in body tissues.
The entry of oxygen into body fluids is also through a process known as diffusion. And diffusion occurs due to the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood and carbon dioxide is different. The oxygen pressure in the tissues is lower than the oxygen pressure in the blood. Thus, oxygen in the blood flows to the tissue fluid.
It can be clearly stated that internal respiration is the process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood in the capillaries and the body’s tissue cells.
The role of oxygen in the respiratory process is for the oxidation of food substances. This is a food substance called glucose (an energy source). The purpose of this oxidation is to produce energy. So, it can be said that the breathing process carried out by living things is to take energy from existing food.
The energy obtained is used in various daily activities. Examples of this activity are maintaining body temperature, body development, muscle contraction and cell division.
Human Respiratory System
Respiration in humans occurs indirectly, namely through a process of indirect diffusion. This means that the air that enters the human body is not processed directly through the skin but through indirect diffusion that occurs from within the body.
This diffusion in the body occurs in a bubble in the lungs called the alveoli. In this indirect respiratory system, air enters the body through several breathing tools.
We can say in simple terms, that this breath is an activity of breathing in air (oxygen) and releasing carbon dioxide. The process occurs through the respiratory organs or respiratory organs. Some of the tools that play a role in human breathing are the nasal cavity, pharynx (pharynx), larynx or larynx, trachea (windpipe), bronchi also known as throat branches, and pulmo (lungs). Here we see an explanation of each of these tools.
1. Nasal cavity
The Human Respiratory System that all we know is the nose. The nose has two cavities where in the nasal cavity there are fine hairs which are quite important for the inhalation process. When the air is inhaled through the nose, the air will first be filtered from the dirt. That is why breathing with the nose is far healthier than breathing through the mouth.
The dirt that enters will get stuck in the nasal cavity and this then becomes upil, here the temperature will also be adjusted in the nose before then entering the lungs. This temperature or humidity temperature is not always balanced or equal to body temperature, so the body needs to regulate this balance.
The nose is the means by which oxygen enters and carbon dioxide exits. The temperature of the air that enters the body is adjusted so that it is the same as the new body temperature entering the body. Likewise, the humidity of the incoming air is also adjusted to match the humidity of our body.
2. Throat Organ
The throat is also a respiratory organ as well as a digestive organ because food also passes through the throat to get to the intestines. The throat that functions for breathing, is about 12-14 cm long and in the language of health or medicine it is called the larynx. The shape is conical and about 4 cm long.
The larynx is composed of muscle fibers and nine cartilages so that it can work perfectly in the process of breathing.
– Pharynx: It looks like a funnel and is located behind the nasal cavity and mouth. The function of the pharynx is as a place for air, food to pass and serves as a vibration chamber to produce sound.
– Larynx: it is located between the larynx and trachea. The walls consist of 9 tulaang cartilage. One of the cartilages is triangular in shape, this cartilage consists of two plates of hyalinkartilage hyaline cartilage. This triangular cartilage is also called the Adam’s apple.
3. Trachea or windpipe
Other Human Respiratory System is trachea. The trachea is a cartilage that is shaped like a ring and is located in the larynx and functions for the digestive tract. The walls of the trachea are made up of cilia or mucous membranes. This mucus functions as a filter for impurities that enter and are not caught by the larynx.
The body will usually respond by coughing or sneezing if any dirt gets into this respiratory tract. Sneezing and coughing are the ways these organs flush out toxins from the body.
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The trachea is a long hollow in the center like a tube and it extends from the throat to the sternum. The trachea is composed of ring-shaped cartilage and is lined with vibrating hairy epithelial cells (cilia) and mucous membrane. This trachea has two branches, and these are called bronchi, one of which leads to the left lung and the other to the right lung.
4. Pulmo or lungs
Pulmo or lungs are in the upper chest cavity and abdominal cavity. The lungs consist of the right lung and the left lung. This organ is covered by a mucous membrane called the pleura. The right lung consists of 3 waves and the left lung is composed of 2 bubbles.
In both lungs there are bronchi which branch to form bronchioles. While the bronchioles are branched again and form fine vessels that grow to the bubbles of the lungs, these tiny vessels are called alveoli. Alveoli or alveoli are shaped like foam, with holes like wasp nests. The number is very much around 300 million. The alveoli have very thin and elastic walls. This is where the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs.