This time we are talking about human rights, what is human rights or human rights? Human rights are the basic rights of every human being since the human being in the womb until after birth and are universally applicable and recognized by all people.
From the human rights sentence alone, we can see the meanings of the words. Human Rights, where rights mean property, or power, can also be interpreted as possessions. While Asasi is the main, basic or main thing. So from this combination of words we can understand that the meaning or meaning of human rights is the basic right or basic rights that every human being has.
Although every human being has basic rights like this, there are quite a number of human rights violations around the world. People who violate human rights are those who prevent or eliminate the basic property of others or destroy the rights of others which are actually protected in law. Many human rights violations occur because they want to dominate, or because they want to be in power so that human rights that are considered to be blocking will be destroyed and damaged by those who feel they have power.
Also read: Definition of Ethics, Characteristics
Definition of Human Rights According to Experts
For clarity on human rights, we now see how the understanding of human rights is based on experts.
1. The definition of human rights according to John Locke
John Locke said that human rights are direct rights given by God to humans as natural rights. So, there is no power in this world that can deprive Human Rights. Human rights are fundamental and are considered the sacred rights of every human being.
2. Understanding human rights according to Jan Materson
Jan Materson, who is on the UN Human Rights Commission, stated that human rights are rights that exist in every human being without which human beings cannot live as human beings.
3. Human Rights According to Miriam Budiarjo
Miriam Budiarjo said that human rights are rights that every human being has since he was born into the world. This right is universal because it is obtained regardless of differences, gender, race, culture, ethnicity and religion. All human beings have this right in principle.
4. Human rights according to Oemar Seno Adji
According to Oemar Seno Adji, the notion of human rights is a right inherent in every human dignity as a human being created by God, where this right should not be violated by anyone.
5. Prof. Koentjoro Poerbopranoto
Prof. Koentjoro said that human rights are rights that are human rights or fundamental in nature. The rights possessed by humans as their nature that cannot be separated so that they are considered sacred.
6. Jack Donnely
The definition of human rights according to Jack Donnely is a right that is owned by a human being because he is only a human being. Humans get this right not because it is given by society but because they are earned because of their dignity as human beings.
7. The definition of human rights according to Law No. 39 of 1999
In Law No. 39 of 1999, it is explained that human rights are a set of rights inherent in humans as God’s creatures. This right is a gift that all human beings must protect and cherish.
Characteristics of Human Rights
After we understand the meaning and meaning of human rights according to the explanations of experts and experts. Now we see what are the characteristics of human rights so that it is clearer in understanding human rights. The characteristics of human rights are very distinctive and this is different from other characteristics of rights so that it is very easy for us to recognize.
- Human rights are not rights that are given to someone, but human rights are the rights of everyone, including civil rights, political rights, social rights, economic rights, and cultural rights.
- Human Rights are not revoked, removed or handed over
- The Human rights are essential, they are rights that have existed since human birth
- Human rights are comprehensive or universal, so they do not consider status, gender, differences, ethnicity and so on
Types of Human Rights
We have studied the definition of human rights, the characteristics of human rights and now we will look at the types and kinds of human rights.
1. Personal Rights
Personal human rights are rights related to an individual person. This right relates specifically to a person, such as a person’s right to eat, the right to go from one place to another, the right to sit, get up, etc. Some other examples of personal rights are:
– The right to freedom of speech
– Human right to freedom of assembly and association
– The right to freely choose and embrace, and practice religion
2. Political Rights
Human rights in politics are rights related to a person’s political life. Among the examples are:
– Take part in government activities
– The right to establish a political party
– Human right to make petition proposals
– The right to vote and vote in a democratic party
3. Legal Equality Rights
– Legal rights are the right to obtain equality in law
– The right to become a civil servant
– The right to legal protection and services
4. Economic Rights (Property Rigths)
This is a human right with regard to economic and employment opportunities.
– Freedom in buying and selling goods
– The right of freedom in the contract agreement
– The right to freely own something
– Freedom in leasing or in accounts payable
5. Judicial Rights (Procedural Rights)
Judicial rights are every citizen to get the same trial and judicial procedures, such as:
– The right to get a legal defense in court
– The right to receive the same treatment of arrest, search, investigation, detention etc.
6. Socio-Cultural Rights (Social Culture Rights)
Socio-cultural human rights are human rights related to everyday socio-cultural life. The example is:
– The right to vote, to get education and the right to determine
– Right to teach
– The right to develop a culture according to interests and talents
Human Rights Violations
Although the essence of human rights is a right that should not be violated, should not be tampered with and despised, there have been many human rights violations throughout the world, even in Indonesia, very many occur throughout the archipelago.
Below we share examples of human rights violations that have occurred in Indonesia as quoted from the maxmanroe.com website.
- The massacre in Rawagede 1945
- 1984 Tanjung Priok tragedy
- The tragedy of the PKI massacre – 1965-1966
- The events of the mysterious shooter (Petrus) in 1982-1985
- The murder of a female labor activist, Marsinah, in 1993
- Santa Cruz events and events – 1991
- The tragedy of the persecution of journalists named Udin – 1996
- Trisakti Tragedy – 1998
- Semanggi Incident and May 1998 riots
- Bulukumba incident in 2003
- The case of the Banyuwangi magician – 1998
- Papua Abepura Incident – 2003
- The bloody Wamena incident in April 2003
- Murder of Human Rights Activist (Human Rights) Munir Said Thalib – 2004
- And much more
That is the explanation of human rights, the understanding of human rights according to experts, various types of human rights, examples of human rights violations, and the characteristics of human rights. Hopefully this is useful and becomes an additional knowledge for everyone.