Islamic Holidays – We, as the Islamic Ummah, naturally and deserve to know the Islamic holidays. Usually, to find out the big days in Islam, the Muslim Ummah uses the Hijriyah calendar instead of the Gregorian calendar, so we can easily find out when is a big day or holiday celebration in Islam.
Hijriyah calendar is a calendar consisting of 12 months based on the circulation of the month, so the days are sometimes 29 days or 30 days, nothing is 28 or 31 days like in the Gregorian calendar. So, the big days in Islam refer to the calendar which is based on the circulation of the month or it is also called the qamariyyah date.
About the month, in the hadith Abu Hurairah Rasulullah SAW said which means:
“Indeed, that era rotates as it was when Allah created the heavens and the earth. A year there are twelve months, of which there are four months that are honored: 3 consecutive months; Dzulqo’dah, Dzulhijjah, Muharram and Rajab Mudhar, which are among the months of Jumada Tsaniah and Sha’ban. ” (Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim)”.
While in Surah at-Taubah verse 38 Allah says which means:
“Indeed, the number of months in Allah’s sight is twelve months, in the decrees of Allah when He created the heavens and the earth, among them the four haram months …”.
The Names of Islamic Months
Such is the month or the approximate month in Islam. The following is the number of 12 months in Islam:
- Rabi’ul Awwal
- Rabi’ul Akhir
- Jumadil Awwal
- Jumadil akhir
- Zul Qa’dah
To know more clearly the Hijri date, we need to know when the date or start date is entered in the Hijri month. If in AD, the date starts at midnight, then in the Hijri month the date starts at maghrib.
The setting of the sun is a sign that the date has been changed in the Hijri month. Next we look at the major holidays in Islam.
- 1 Muharram, this is the Islamic new year
- 10 Muharram, this is the day of Ashura, or the tenth fast of Muharram
- 12 Rabi’ul Awwal, This is the birthday of the Great Majesty of the Prophet Muhammad SAW, the commemoration of the birthday of the Prophet Muhammad.
- 27 Rajab, is the day of isra ‘mi’raj of the Prophet SAW
- 1 Ramadan, the first day of Muslims to observe Ramadan fasting
- 17 Ramadan, the day of nuzulul qur’an
- 1 Shawwal, Eid al-Fitr
- 9 Dzulhijjah, wukuf at Arafah for those who carry out the pilgrimage
- 10 Zulhijjah, Eid al-Adha
- 11-13 Dzulhijah, Tasyriq Day
Explanation of Islamic Religious Holidays
1. Month of Muharram
Muharram month is the first month in the hijri calendar and the first day of Muharram is the first day of the Islamic new year. This includes a glorious month even including the haram month that Allah glorifies and forbids fighting in that month.
Rasulullah SAW recommended that his people fast as much as possible in the month of Muharram.
2. 10 Muharram
Ten Muharram is the day of Ashura or the tenth of the first month in the Hijri calendar. Ashura Day is a historical day in Islam. Among the events on 10 Ashura was the installation of the kiswah ka’bah which was carried out by the Arabs at that time.
Furthermore, one day when Rasulullah SAW went to Medina, he found the Arabs ignorant fasting on the 10th day of Muharram. He asked, why are you fasting? They answered, today is the day when Allah saved Musa from Pharaoh, so He fasted, so we fasted after Moses. Rasulullah SAW said: We have more rights to follow Musa. instead of you, Rasulullah SAW fasted on the day of Ashura and ordered his people to fast on that day.
In the hadith from Ibn Abbas, when Rasulullah SAW fasted on the day of Ashura, the companions asked him. O Messenger of Allah, today is a day that is glorified by Jews and Christians, Rasulullah also said, if next year we meet the month of Muharram, then we will fast on the ninth day. (Hadith History of Muslim Bukhari)
The hadith above shows that Rasulullah SAW wanted to be different from Jews and Christians, so he not only fasted on the day of Ashura, but also participated in fasting on the ninth day in order to be mukhalafah with them.
3. 12 Rabi’ul Awal, The Birth of the Great Prophet Muhammad SAW
The next big day of the Islamic religion is the birthday of the Prophet Rasulullah SAW, so we circumcised celebrate his birthday as a form of gratitude and joy for the messenger of the Prophet Muhammad on the face of this earth. Apart from being born, the 12th of Rabiul Awal is also the day of the Prophet’s death at the age of 63 years and 4 days.
Also read: Miracles of Prophet Muhammad PBUH
Commemorating the birthday of Prophet Muhammad SAW was first done by Sultan Salahuddin al-Ayyubi. In commemorating the birthday of Rasulullah SAW, they read the history of the Prophet’s life including the attributes of the glory of Rasulullah SAW to increase our love for Rasulullah SAW. Commemorating the Prophet’s birthday, the law is sunnat or called bid’ah hasanah, which is a good bid’ah to carry out.
4. 27 Rajab, the day of Isra ‘Mi’raj
Furthermore, the big day in Islam is the 27th of Rajab. This is the day of the Isra ‘Mi’raj incident. Isra ‘is the journey of Rasulullah SAW from the Haram Mosque to the Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. Furthermore, the messenger of Allah was carried out by Allah through the angel Jibril from Jerusalem to sidratul muntaha or the seventh heaven.
The purpose of this meaningful historical journey is to receive prayer orders from Allah SAW, which initially amounted to 50 times a day and night to 5 times a day and night.
5. 1 Ramadan
1 Ramadan is the first day of the ummat Muhammad SAW to perform compulsory worship, namely fasting Ramadan for one full month with a count of hijri months using the rukyah system or based on the sighting of the new moon.
Among the arguments that state the obligation to fast is surah al-Baqarah verse 185 which means:
“(The specified days are) the month of Ramadan, the month in which the Qur’an was revealed as a guide for humans and explanations regarding that guidance and differentiation (between the right and the false). you are present (in the country where he lives) in that month, so let him fast in that month. ” (Surah Al Baqarah: 185).
6. 17 Ramadan
17 Ramadan is a historical day in Islam, on which we commemorate the revelation of the Koran. Allah sent down the noble verses in one beat from lauhil mahfuz to a place in the sky of the world which is called baitul izzah.
Then, it was only in time that they were gradually sent down to this world to the Prophet Muhammad in accordance with the conditions and circumstances.
7. 1 Shawwal, Eid al-Fitr
1 Shawwal the first day of the month after the month of Ramadan which is the day of Eid. The Muslim Ummah feast day after fasting Ramadan is even one month.
So, the 1st of Shawwal is the day of joy for Muslims after a month of jihad against lust. It is a very tough jihad and if we succeed in fasting for one month sincerely and solely for the sake of Allah, then Allah will reward us in the form of taqwa, which is an extraordinary title with Allah.
8. 9 Zulhijjah, the day of wukuf at Arafah
The 9th day of zulhijjah is a historical day in Islam, where all pilgrims on that day perform wuquf in arafah, while people who do not perform hajj are circumcised to perform the fasting of Arafah circumcision.
In a hadith, Rasulullah SAW said, which means:
“Fasting on the day of Arafah erases the sins of two years, namely the previous year and the year after. Ashura fasting erases the sins of the previous year. (Narrated by Jamaah, except for Bukhari and Tirmizy).
9. 10 Zulhijjah, the holy day of Qurban or Eid al-Adha
10 Zulhijjah is the festival of qurban or what is called Eid al-Adha. On this holiday, Muslims are encouraged to slaughter their qurban animals. That is why, it is called the qurban feast day. The qurban meat that was slaughtered was distributed to all the poor, so today everyone can taste the sacrificial meat and feel happiness together.
10. 11 to 13 Dzulhijjah, Tasyrik day
Other Islamic Holidays is the day od 11 to 13 Dzulhijijah. On the 11th to 13th of Zulhijjah, or tasyrik days, Muslims are still forbidden to fast as it is forbidden on Eid al-Adha. It could be said, the day of tasyrik is the day when Muslims still enjoy meat and various foods.
In a hadith from the Nubaisyah Al-Hudzali, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said which means: “Tasyriq days are days of eating and drinking.” (HR. Muslim 1141).