Islamic Kingdom in Indonesia – Talking about history, we cannot be separated from the long history of the Islamic ummah in the archipelago so that Islamic kingdoms were born in Indonesia.
Before Islam entered Indonesia, at that time human beliefs were divided into three, namely Animism, Dynamism and Totemism. However, after Islam came, Islam seemed to melt into the lives of Indonesians at that time so that other religions began to fade.
The entry of Islam to the archipelago was inseparable from the role and services of Muslim scholars and traders who came to Indonesia at that time. From here the Islamic kingdoms of the archipelago or Islamic kingdoms in Indonesia were born. Now the findings about evidence of the spread of Islam in the past are increasingly being encountered and one of the biggest is the trace of the Islamic empire in the archipelago which is known to have 12 Islamic kingdoms.
The following is an overview of the work of Islam in Indonesia along with the names of its kings and legacies of the past. The purpose of this paper is to enrich your knowledge with the history of the nation and the history of the Muslim Ummah who dominated the archipelago.
Islamic Kingdoms in Indonesia
There is a lot of evidence to show that Indonesia has long been a place for the spread of Islam. This evidence is in the form of relics of the Islamic empire that have spread throughout Indonesia. This Islamic work is not only in one place, but there are almost all regions of Indonesia. Apart from the Islamic empire, there is other evidence that shows that Islam has long entered Indonesia, namely the discovery of the tombs of kings with Islamic names.
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Ok, here we take a look at the Islamic kingdoms in Indonesia and the names of kings and their legacy.
1. The kingdom of Samudra Pasai
The kingdom of Samudra Pasai is an Islamic work that was founded in the 13th century AD with a king named Sultan Malik al-Shaleh. For those of you who want to visit Malik al-Shaleh’s grave, you can come to North Aceh, namely Samudra Pasai or now called Geudong pasei.
Then, in 1326 the kingdom was led by Sultan Malik Al Tahir, starting to enforce gold coins as the currency of the ocean pasai.
2. Kingdom of Aceh Darussalam
Apart from Samuddra Pasai there are also other Islamic kingdoms that stood in Aceh, namely the kingdom of Aceh Darussalam which was founded in 1514 AD with a king named Sultan Ibrahim. His tenure is 10 years and he is the first king of this Islamic kingdom. If we want to see traces of this work of Islam, they can now be found in Aceh Besar.
Furthermore, until one day this kingdom was led by a king named Sultan Iskandar Muda and reached his age in 1607-1636.
3. Islamic Kingdom of Demak
The next Islamic work that was present in Indonesia was the Demak kingdom. This Islamic kingdom was founded in 1478 AD under the leadership of a king named Raden Patah.
Then in 1507 there was a change of leadership, namely replaced by his son named Pati Unus, he was the king who later received the title Pangeran Sabrangn lor. He was well known as a king who dared to fight against the Portuguese in Malacca so that his nickname as the prince of Sabrang Lor was pinned to his name.
4. The Islamic Kingdom of Pajang
There is also another Islamic kingdom that has developed in the archipelago, namely the Islamic kingdom of Pajang. This kingdom was led by a king who was no stranger to hearing, namely Jaka Tingkir or Sultan Adiwijaya in 1568.
After the death of the sultan Adi Wijaya, the Islamic kingdom was then put on display by Jaka Tingkir’s son, Prince Benowo. But then, Pajang’s job was ruined when Prince Benowo gave leadership to Sutowijoyo, he was none other than his adopted brother.
5. Mataram Islamic Kingdom
The next Islamic kingdom was the Mataram kingdom which was founded in 1586 by Sutowijoyo. To be precise, the Mataram kingdom was located in Kotagede, which is south of Yogyakarta.
In 1601 Sutowijaya died and was later replaced by Panembahan Seda ing Krapyak, he was also known as Mas Jolang. At this time, this kingdom had not yet experienced its glory. The golden age of the Mataram Islamic kingdom had just experienced its heyday or golden age during the leadership of the Sultan Agung, known as Mas Rangsang.
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6. Islamic Kingdom of Banten
One proof that Indonesia in the past became an entry area for Islam was the Islamic kingdom of Banten. This kingdom was founded by Sultan Hasanuddin in 1552 AD
The Kingdom of Banten experienced its heyday in the power of Sultan Hasanuddin, but after he died, the reins of leadership in Banten Islamic work was handed over to his son, Prince Yusuf. At this time this work was still in its heyday. Only experienced a setback after this kingdom was led by Sultan Abdul Mufakhkhir.
7. The Islamic Kingdom of Cirebon
This is an Islamic kingdom led by Raaden Fatahillah in 1522 AD. In its power, the Cirebon kingdom experienced its heyday. After he died in 1570, his son named Pangeran Pasarean took the leadership.
This Islamic kingdom in the power of his son was divided into two parts, namely Kasepuhan and Kanoman.
8. The Islamic Kingdom of Banjar
This Islamic kingdom was founded by the prince Samudra 1520, namely in the Kalimantan area. At that time in Kalimantan there was a scholar who was famous for his wisdom, namely Syeh Muhammad Arsyad al-Banjari. Taahun 1545 Raden Samudra died and the kingdom was in the hands of Sultan Rahmatullah (1545-1570).
9. The Islamic Kingdom of Sukadana or Tanjung Pura
This kingdom was ruled by Sultan Muhammad Zainuddin from 1665-1724 AD, while the last king was Gusti Kesuma Matan (Giri Mustika or Sultan Muhammad Syaifuddin). This kingdom was originally a very old kingdom in West Kalimantan.
10. Islamic Kingdom of Ternate
The kingdom of Ternate is in North Maluku and was founded by the sultan Marhum. This is just one of the jobs in Ternate because here there are many kingdoms such as Tidore, Bacan and Obi.
Ternate and Tidore are two kingdoms that have developed very rapidly over time. One of the factors is due to the natural wealth in the form of spices. The richness of the spices caused business transactions to occur here quite rapidly. Some of them spread Islam while trading so that Islam shines even more in Ternate.
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The Islamic Kingdom of Ternate after sultan Marhum died, was replaced by sultan Harun and after sultan Harun died, it was replaced by his son named Sultan Baabubllah.
11. Tidore Islamic Kingdom
This Islamic kingdom is an Islamic kingdom led by a king named Muhammad Naqil, to be precise in 1801. This Islamic work is adjacent to the Ternate kingdom, the law that applies within the kingdom is Islamic law which was ratified by the 11th king of Tidore, namely Sultan Djamalludin. The implementation of Islamic law is a blessing from the preaching of a scholar who came from Arabia, namely Sheikh Mansur.
This work was also a trading center where many Europeans came to carry out various transactions. Among the European nations who came to trade were the Spanish, Dutch and Portuguese.
Sultan Nuku ruled in Tidore’s work from 1780-1805 AD and it was also during this time that the Islamic kingdom of Tidore reached its golden age.
12. Islamic Kingdom of Makassar
Makassar, South Sulawesi is not only one kingdom there, but there are several Islamic occupations that have lived in the past including Gowa, Waju, Bone, Luwu, Soppeng and Tallo. Goa and Tallo were two fast developing Islamic kingdoms. The supporting factor for the advancement of the two kingdoms is that there is good economic growth because this kingdom is located in a strategic place with shipping routes. At the time of Sultan Alauddin this work decided to live Islamic law within the kingdom.
Makassar’s work includes being very active in conducting da’wah in developing Islam. During the reign of Sultan Hasanuddin, the grandson of Sultan Alauddin, the job of Makasaar, experienced his heyday.
Heritage of the Islamic Kingdom in Indonesia
1. Samudra Pasai
As an Islamic kingdom, of course there are many relics that can be used as evidence that Islamic work has existed for a long time in Indonesia. Among the legacy of Samudra Pasai work are Cakra Donya, Tomb of Sultan Malik al Saleh, Sultan Zainal Abidin’s Manuscript, Tomb of Sheikh Zain al-Abidin Malik az-Zahir, including the most valuable relics are the seal of the Samudra Pasai Kingdom, and the Tomb of Ratu Al-Aqla.
2. Kingdom of Aceh Darussalam
Apart from the Pasai Ocean, a kingdom that had developed in the past was the kingdom of Darussalam. This kingdom also very much left historical evidence. One of the greatest evidences of the kingdom of Aceh Darussalam is the Baiturrahmaan Banda Aaceh Mosque.
In addition, there are still many other evidences that show that the kingdom of Darussalam once ruled such as Indrapatra Fort, Sultan Iskandar Muda’s Tomb, Gunongan, Mariam Kingdom of Aceh Darussalam, as well as the existence of gold coins that were in effect during the past Islamic empire.
3. Relics of the Demak Kingdom
The Islamic kingdom of Demak also left many relics of the past as proof that they once existed. Among the remains of the Demak kingdom are the Great Demak mosque, Soko Guru and Soko Tatal, the ablution pool, Makrusah, Piring Campa, Dampar Kencana, Kentongan, Beduk, and the door of bledek.
4. Relics of the Islamic Kingdom of Pajang
The kingdom, which was once led by Jaka Tingkir, also leaves many historical relics such as the Laweyan Mosque, Bandar Kabanaran, Tombs of the nobility, batik art and Lweyan Market.
5. Relics of the Mataram Islamic Kingdom
Royal relics are somewhat different from relics from other kingdoms in the form of books or buildings. However, Mataram left Kepo Cake.
While other remains are in the form of Gendhing Literature by the Great sultan, silver handicrafts, the Saka year, Kalang Obong, Gundhil clerics’ clothes, Batu Datar, and Kotagede Eating Gate.
6. Relics of the Islamic Kingdom of Cirebon
The remains of the Cirebon kingdom are in the form of palace buildings such as the Kanoman Palace, Kasepuhan Palace, and Kacirebonan Palace. There are also relics in the form of mosques such as the two Sang Cipta Rasa mosques and the Jami Pakuncen Mosque. There are also relics in the form of tombs and past heirlooms.
7. Relics of the Islamic Kingdom of Banten
Banten mosque is one of the valuable legacies of the Islamic Empire in the past. Apart from the mosque, the kingdom of Banten also has other remains such as the Kaibon Banten Palace, Speelwijk Fortress, the Surosowan Banten Palace, Lake Tasikardi, Meriam Ki Amuk, Vihara Avalokitesvara, Mahkota Binokasih, Keris Naga Sasra and Keris Penunggul Naga.
8. Relics of the Banjar Islamic Kingdom
Banjar does not leave much of a historical remnant like other Islamic work. Some of the remains of the Banjar kingdom that once ruled in Banjar are the Agung Amuntai Temple and the Sultan Suriansyah Mosque.
9. Relics of the Kingdom of Tanjung Pura and Sukadana
This Islamic kingdom also did not leave much historical relics. The Islamic kingdom of tanjung pura and sukadana left behind only one proof of its history, namely the land of stones. The land of stones is a place for old tombs that have been occupied by the kingdom.
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10. Relics of the Islamic kingdom of Ternate
The Kingdom of Ternate also has many historical relics such as the Sultan’s Palace of Ternate, the Old Tomb, a place to pray, the Jami Sultan Ternate Mosque, the throne. There are other relics in the form of weapons such as spears, rifles, swords, shields and the King wrote in Arabic.
11. Relics of the Islamic Kingdom of Tidore
A unique kingdom and different from its heritage, the Tidore kingdom left a lot of food such as Tidore Lapis cake, Kale-kale cake, Bilolo cake, Ash cake, and Popeda cake.
Meanwhile, other remains that are not in the form of food are Torre and Tahula Fortress and Kie Palace.
12. Relics of the Islamic Kingdom of Makassar
The kingdom of Makassar left many fortresses in the form of burial forts such as Fort Ford Rotterdam, the Katangka Mosque, Batu Pallantikang, Syekh Yusuf’s Tomb and the Katangka Tomb Complex.
Thus our review of the Islamic empire in Indonesia may hopefully renew our memories of the history of Islam in the past and increase our love for the scholars who have spread Islam and increase our gratitude for the blessings given by Allah.