Jacote fruit or Spondias Purpurea commonly known as Spanish Plum, Seriguela is a plant that is still in the same species as cashew nuts. Anacardiaceae, native to tropical America, including the West Indies. This jacote plant has been considered a plant from Africa, India, Sri Lanka, The Bahamas, Indonesia, Bangladesh, and Caribbean islands.
This plant is widely cultivated in the eastern part of Brazil, which is why Spanish plums are found in many Brazilian homes. Brazil is a country with an extraordinary wealth of fruit, and the fruits here are of high quality, this fruit in the region of Brazil is called jacote. Jacote comes from the Nahuatl word xocotl, which means all kinds of tamarind fruit. However, jacote fruit will taste different if it is ripe perfectly, it is a sweet fruit. Jacote has many names and varies according to region. Among the names are Brazilian Plum, Ciruela, Chile Plum, Hog Plum, Jamaica Plum, Wild Plum, Ovo, Jocote, Scarlet Plum, Purple Jobo, Purple Plum, Spanish Plum, Purple Mombin and Red Mombin.
Many jacote fruit are sold on the side of the road and in markets. The travelers from Spain who went to the Philippines, brought these plants to the Philippines and there they were planted widely because of the large land availability. Jacote fruit is often eaten directly even though it is not yet ripe, usually eaten with added salt or lime to increase appetite and increase appetite.
Many jacote fruit are also preserved by boiling and then drying. Dry like this, the jacote will last for several months.
Jocote (Spanish Plum) is a small plant that grows to a height of 7 meters, its crown spreads out. Jacote grows a lot in shrubs, in areas of fences, meadows, and other places.
This plant does well in a wide variety of soils including sandy, gravel, loamy loam, or even calcareous soils. The stem has a large diameter of about 30-80 cm. The skin is gray, rough, cracked, and thick. If the stem is injured, the exudate and sap will come out. The branches tend to grow horizontally and are usually very brittle.
After we know how the characteristics of the jacotek plant, we now look more specifically at the leaves. The leaves are compound, pinnate, bronze red color, and some are even purple when young. Pinnately compound purplish when young or bronze-red. With 5–12 pairs of elliptical-ovate, sub-sessile leaflets, 2-6 cm long by 1.25 cm wide, and shallowly toothed towards the acute apex, oblique base, fall before the flowering period.
In each panicle there are male and female flowers so it is very easy to pollinate. The flower consists of 4-5 sepals and 4 or five small red petals. Pollen does not form because mother cells, called micro-sporangia, do not develop.
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Jacote fruit has parthenocarpic characteristics. The fruit is drupe and slightly oval or sub-round in shape. The size is 2.5-5.0 by 1.0-3.5 cm, the kulint is smooth and glossy. When the fruit reaches maturity, it will turn red, purple, yellow or slightly black in color. Mesocarp is a fruit that is juicy and fleshy, about 5-7 mm thick, very aromatic, yellow, and fibrous, with a sour taste.
Historically, jacote or Spondias purpurea is a plant native to tropical America, this plant grows in several regions extensively, from North America to northern Peru and the Yucatan. Now it is widely cultivated including the Philippines, Galapagoes and Nigeria.
Health Benefits of Jocote
Jacote fruit is a healthy fruit that should be consumed a lot. Now this plant has spread throughout the world. The taste is still sour and has its own charm to eat.
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Jacote fruit is rich in nutrients, be it minerals or vitamins. Due to the high content of these nutrients, Jocote (Spanish Plum) has several health benefits. Below we take a look at what are the benefits and uses of jacote or Spanish plum.
1. Strengthens body immunity
Jocote (Spanish Plum) is rich in iron and other nutrients which are very important in maintaining the body’s resistance. It contains vitamins B, A, C, contains calcium, phosphorus, which are very important in maintaining endurance. Even the benefits of jacote fruit are used in treating dengue fever.
2. Helps lose weight
Jacote is rich in fiber which helps to keep you feeling full longer. This is good for meal intervals, you certainly don’t want to eat quickly because your stomach still feels full. Apart from being rich in fiber, seriguela is also low in calories, which in 100 grams only contains 76 calories. It is rich in vitamins, and other essential nutrients that support health.
3. Provides lots of energy
Jacote fruit contains lots of carbohydrates and iron which play an important role in providing energy. For sportsmen, it is very good to consume fruit (Spanish Plum) because it can relieve fatigue and speed up getting a new supply of energy.
4. Good for digestion
Spanish Plum fruit is rich in fiber which is great for digestion. It is good for maintaining bowel function and treating ailments like diarrhea, dysentery, and good for getting rid of gas in the stomach.
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5. Against anemia
The high iron content in Jocote (Spanish Plum) is very useful for preventing anemia. Anemia is a disease characterized by lack of blood and causes body parts to look pale. This is a dangerous disease if not treated properly.
6. Helps the body function
Jocote (Spanish Plum) is also rich in antioxidants, which are important compounds that are useful for fighting foreign objects or toxins that enter the body. Antioxidants will fight free radicals that damage body cells, so that the body can quickly regenerate cells and this is useful for preventing aging.
7. Cure seizures
Seriguela fruit also contains vitamins, potassium, and calcium, these nutrients are very important in reducing muscle contraction and spasms. These health problems usually occur due to deficiencies of these minerals and vitamins.
Traditional Uses and Benefits of Jocote (Spanish Plum)
- Jacote fruit is an antispasmodic and diuretic so it is good for releasing toxins, practiced in Mexico
- The Jacote fruit decoction is used as water to clean mouth sores.
- Jacote fruit can be made into a syrup, and this syrup is a chronic diarrhea medicine
- The Spanish medicine plum is also good for vomiting, as is practiced by the Cubans.
- The people of Haiti use jacote syrup as an angina remedy, while in Dominica, it is used as a laxative.
- Used as a jam in laxatives, the French use this plant as an astringent.
- The decoction of the bark is used as a remedy for scabies, ulcers, bloating, gas in Mexico.
- Jacote fruit decoction is also used as a medicine for diarrhea, dysentery, and gonorrhea as practiced in the Philippines.
- Jacote stem sap is useful for treating stomatitis in infants and the decoction of the skin is used as a medicine for tympanic and dysentery.
- The Tikunas Indians used jacote decoction as a medicine for menstrual bleeding, diarrhea, stomach aches and washing wounds, practiced by the Amazons.
- The fresh leaf juice of the Spanish pulm plant is used as a canker sore
- The decoction of the leaves and stems of this plant is used as a traditional medicine to reduce heat.
- Amazonian Indians, use a cup every day of jacote decoction as a remedy for permanent infertility.
- Jacote leaf extract or Spanish Pulm has anti-bacterial properties, according to research by the University of Ife.
- The leaves are used as a poultice for headaches, the way is to crush them first.
- The herb from jacote leaves and from the skin is used as a medicine to reduce high fever.
- The pulp tastes sweet and sour, and is tasty and is usually consumed directly.
- Can be boiled, added sugar and eaten as a dessert
- Jacote fruit can be preserved by boiling it with salt, then drying it in the sun.
- Another way to preserve it is by boiling and drying it in the sun.
- Fruit juice that has been cooked will produce jelly, this is made as jam, syrup, and as a soft drink.
- Jacote fruit juice (Spanish plum) is very fresh especially when mixed with other juices.
- Raw fruit can be made sour, green sauce, or acidified in vinegar and consumed with salt and chilies. (in mexico)
- New shoots and young leaves can be raw, it is acidic, it can also be cooked as a vegetable (in North Central America)
- Other Facts About Spanish Plum
- The fruit, bark and leaves are rich in tannins
- The fruit is usually used as a hand wash and an anti-sap on clothes
- Cattle eat jacote leaves
- The large stump is used as a fence post
- The ash is used as an ingredient in soap
- Wood that is soft and brittle does not last long, it is used for making paper pulp
- Another jacote fact is that the wood is brittle and makes excellent firewood
- The young leaves are made for animal feed and are often used as pig food.