Ramadan Fasting Rules – In fact, we will soon enter the month of Ramadan which is full of blessings and love from Allah. The month of Ramadan is also filled with forgiveness from Allah. So, we should be happy with the arrival of the month of Ramadan. A month that has many virtues compared to other months.
So, as Muslims, we should understand and understand what are the conditions for compulsory fasting. So, in this post, we will explain the Ramadan Fasting Rules or the mandatory conditions for fasting.
Obligatory Conditions for Fasting
The first Ramadan Fasting Rules is to be Muslim, if someone is Muslim, then it is obligatory for him to fast. This means that we consider ourselves to be Muslims, so there is one condition for us to be obliged to fast.
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When we say “Islam” it means that it is not obligatory to fast for the original kafir. The meaning of “original kafir” is someone who from the beginning he was kafir (not an apostate). For genuine infidels, he is not obliged to fast in Ramadan because it is not legal for them to observe this extraordinary Ramadan fast.
The meaning of not being obliged to fast here is not obligatory at all, the reason is that disbelievers are put into hell as a result of leaving fasting. However, the meaning is, if they convert to Islam, they are not obliged to replace the fast which was never practiced during the kafir. This is proof that they are not obliged to fast, just like children who when baligh, are not obliged to replace fasting that they have not done in the past.
Unlike the case with apostates (na’uzubillah), fasting is still obliged on them even though it is not legal to do. The proof, he is obliged to replace the fast he left behind if one day he returned to Islam.
2. Taklif (baligh and intelligent)
The next Ramadan Fasting Rules or the second condition that makes a person obliged to fast are taklif, the meaning of taklif is reasoning and baligh. Baligh for women is marked with menstruation, or is 15 years old, for men it is marked by dreaming, being 15 years old or having changes in their bodies such as growing coarse hair and changing their voice.
When we say baligh, then we understand that it is not obligatory to fast for children who have not reached maturity. This includes the baby, mumayyiz (children who can tell the difference between good and bad) and murahiq (children who are approaching puberty). They are not obliged to fast in Ramadan. However, if mumayyiz and generosity perform fasting, then it is legal for them and they are rewarded as well because it aims to encourage their worship.
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When we say that we are sensible, it is understood that fasting is not obligatory for a mad, drunk, and ill-tempered person who is not healed at all times in that day. However, if crazy and drunkenness occurs on purpose, such as consuming illegal drugs, then it is obligatory for them to abuse them at another time. If the madness was accidental, then there is no obligation for them to replace at another time.
So, if we are among those who are intelligent and have matured, it means that we are among those who are obliged to do the fasting of Ramadan.
3. Ithaqah (capable)
The third mandatory requirement for fasting is “being able to fast”. If we are able to fast, then we already have an obligation to fast. Being able to fast is included in the Ramadan Fasting Rules that have been established by the syara ‘. The purpose of having the ability is if we fast, it does not cause weakness and does not hurt the body.
There are two groups of people who are considered unable to fast, they are old people. The meaning of old parents is that if he fasts it can cause harm to his body. For such a person, there is no obligation for him to fast and he is not obliged to replace, but obligatory for him to pay one mud meal to the poor for every day that he leaves fasting.
The second group who are not obliged to fast – because they are considered incapable – are sick people. The sick here are people who are really sick and unable to fast. In the book of fiqh it is said that this person is sick and cannot possibly be cured based on a medical diagnosis, even if he can recover later. This kind of person is not obliged to fast and is not obliged to make his fast. But it is compulsory for him to pay one mud meal to the poor for every day he leaves.
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If he leaves fasting for 30 days, it means that he is obliged to give kafarah or food as much as 30 mud to the poor.
In some books of the scholars such as Syarah Manhaj, two more conditions are added, namely being in good health and mukim (people who are not travelers). However, we can understand these two conditions in the third point, namely ithaqah or being able.
Note: 1 mud is 675 grams of staple food.