Indonesia is one of the many countries which is a habitat for plants. As a country that is on the equator, Indonesia has abundant natural resources, especially in terms of plants and plants, including rare plants. There are some plants that are very rare and rarely found in Indonesia and cannot even be found in other countries.
This rare plant can be said to be on the way to extinction if it is not properly preserved. So, to continue to inherit this natural wealth, the Indonesian people must protect and preserve these rare plants properly, even this is our duty.
Immediately, we see what goes into these rare plants, hopefully it will be a meaningful addition to knowledge and move our hearts to preserve it so that our children and grandchildren can still see these plants.
Various Rare Plants in Indonesia
1. Carcass flowers
The corpse flower is one of the rare plants in Indonesia, in Latin it is called Amorphophallus titanum. It is said to be a corpse flower because this flower gives off a bad smell when it blooms, this is actually the wisdom of inviting the beetles to the flowers.
Amorphophallus titanum flowers usually only bloom in 7 days then it will die or will grow back. This flower can grow to a height of up to 4 meters. The place to grow or the original habitat of the corpse flower is in Sumatra and the flowering time is also very long, about every 5 years. Now the corpse flower plants have been planted and preserved in other places such as in Ir. Djuanda, Bandung.
2. Javanese Edelweiss
Apart from carcass flowers, Javanese Edelweiss flowers are also very rare and very few in number. In Latin it is called Anaphalis javanic and it grows in the mountainous areas of Java. After the volcanic eruption, this plant was the first plant to grow there.
The Javanese Edelweiss is a very strong flower, it can even last a long time after being plucked from the tree. That is why many mountain climbers in Java sometimes pick flowers to take home as a memento. Now, Javanese Edelweiss flowers are classified as rare flowers and plants in Indonesia that must be preserved properly.
Usually, Javanese Edelweiss flowers bloom in April and it is said that this plant is very durable and can live up to 100 years with a height of only 8 meters.
If you want to see Javanese Edelweiss flowers, now you can find them in several places, namely: Tegal Alun (Mount Papandayan), Mandalawangi Square (Mount Pangrango), Surya Kencana Square (Mount Gede), and Plawangan Sembalun (Mount Rinjani).
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3. Rafflesia Arnoldii
Another giant flower that is now a rare flower and plant is the Rafflesia Arnoldii flower. Rafflesia Arnoldii is a flower that can give off a bad smell like a corpse flower. This is the reason many people are mistaken in calling it. Sometimes they call the Rafflesia Arnoldii flower a corpse flower.
The Rafflesia flower is different from the corpse flower, the Rafflesia grows up to 1 meter wide and the corpse flower grows up to 4 meters tall. Both are rare flowers and only exist in Indonesia. To be able to bloom, this flower takes 9 months from growing to bloom. While the blooming period is only about 7 days like a corpse flower and then it will wither and die.
4. Leaf Umbrella
In Latin, it is called Johannesteijsmannia altifrons, is one of the rare plants that is already in Indonesia. Umbrella leaves are also called sang or salo leaves. This plant was first discovered by a professor, namely Professor Teijsman. His name was later immortalized as the scientific name of this plant, namely Johannesteijsmannia altifrons.
This plant has very large, wide and strong leaves. So, in the past, it was widely used as a roof. Its function is as a roof or as a protector, it is called in Indonesian as an umbrella leaf.
Sandalwood is a rare plant species and is headed for extinction if it is not conserved properly. Sandalwood is expensive wood with a price of up to 100 million per trunk if it is harvested, but the harvest time is very long, which can be 30 years.
Now sandalwood is a rare wood in Indonesia. Why is the price so expensive, this wood is usually used as an ingredient for making perfume, incense, spices, aromatherapy, even for keris sangkur (warangka) and cigarette plugs. There are also those who make beads and so on. The fragrance is one of the main attractions for many people to use this wood.
The price of sandalwood that is already large is around 100 million, but make no mistake, there are also those that can cost billions for just one stick.
6. Resin wood
Resin wood is the same as sandalwood, which is both a rare plant today. In Latin it is called Agathis dammara, resin can grow to a height of 60 meters in height. The growing area is spread throughout Indonesia, so the name is sometimes not damar but in accordance with each area. For example, some call it a grid (Buru area), Ternate people call it salo, rowungon (Samar), and some call it ki damar, in the Sundanese area.
Damar is not only used for the wood but also for its sap. The resin sap is used as a material for making Copal. Copal is one of the materials for coating paper, lacquer or varnish.
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Furthermore, a rare plant is tengkawang which in Latin is called shorean. This rare plant is native to Kalimantan and what is used from Tengkawang is its oil. Tengkawang consists of 12 species and is now in a critical period or on the verge of extinction, so to preserve it, the government took over this plant.
The oil is taken from the fallen tengkawang seeds, all the seeds are collected and ignited before the oil is taken. These seeds are also food for wild animals in the forest such as pigs and others. Tengkawang oil is used as a food ingredient, as a traditional medicine. In the modern world, this oil is known as green butter oil which is used in making candles, cosmetics and others.
8. Cane Orchid (Grammatophyllum speciosum)
Sugarcane orchid is a rare plant and it is the largest variety of the orchid plant and one of the heaviest weights. Orchid plants with the name Grammatophyllum speciosum can weigh up to 1 ton in one clump. Its size is large, so it is often called the giant orchid.
This sugarcane orchid flower is yellow mixed with red or black spots. Uniquely, sugarcane orchids are very durable. Orchids that have been cut can last up to 2 months, which is extraordinary.
9. Ulin wood (Eusideroxylon zwageri Teijsm & Binn)
Another rare plant in Indonesia is Ulin. Also called by the name Bulian and iron wood. Ironwood is very strong, so it is not surprising that this wood is widely used as wood for building, bridges, ships and houses.
The Ulin tree can grow up to 96 cm in diameter and up to 36 meters in height. Ironwood is commonly found in Sumatra and it is becoming increasingly rare because its cultivation is very difficult.
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10. Semar Bag
The next rare plant is the semar bag, this plant is like an animal because it can win over all the insects that come near it such as bees and flies. Semar bags are carnivorous plants because they prey on stars. Its current existence is very small and it has to be cultivated a lot so it doesn’t become extinct.
The semar bag is very unique, it only preys on insects when the plant is mature, at that time the semar bag is closed and will open when an insect approaches it, if the insect plays beside the semar bag then it will be trapped in the semar office.
Those are some of the rare plants that exist in Indonesia now and are on the verge of extinction. It is hoped that all of us protect and preserve this rare plant so that it does not become extinct.