The learning method is a way of delivering education to students which is carried out systematically, regularly by educators or teachers.
There are also those who say that the learning method or learning method is a technique or tactic in carrying out teaching and learning activities in the classroom which is carried out by the teaching staff with the aim that the learning objectives that have been set can run well and as expected.
In teaching and learning activities, an educator or teacher must be able to apply good tactics or strategies according to the character of the students. In this way the teaching and learning process will run well and students feel happy to receive the lessons so that it is easy for them to absorb the lessons that are given.
Learning Methods According to Experts
To be able to understand learning methods properly, we must first understand some of the definitions of learning methods as defined by experts. Here are some expert opinions about learning methods.
1. Abdurrahman Ginting
Abdurrahman Ginting said that the learning method is a typical pattern or way of utilizing various basic principles of education and includes various techniques and other related resources with the aim or so that the learning process occurs in students.
2. Hasby Ashydiqih
A scientist named Hasby As-shiddiqy said that the learning method is a set of ways that are carried out in order to achieve certain goals in the learning process.
3. Nana Sudjana
The definition of learning methods according to Nana Sudjana is the method used by teachers or educators in making relationships with students during the teaching and learning process.
Ahmadi said that the learning method is the knowledge of various teaching methods used by teachers or instructors.
5. Sobri Sutikno
Furthermore, there is an understanding of the learning method as defined by Sobri Sutikno. He said that the learning method is the method used in presenting subject matter to students so that the learning process occurs in students in order to achieve goals.
Kinds of Learning Methods
There are many types and varieties of teaching methods. As a teacher or educator, we should understand and understand the various teaching methods. The goal is that we can apply which method models are appropriate for students so that the teaching and learning process can run well.
1. Lecture Method
One method of learning is the lecture method. This is the conventional way of conveying information verbally to students. This method is considered to be the most practical and economical way, but still there are advantages and disadvantages of this method.
What are the advantages and disadvantages?
The advantages of the lecture method
- Teachers can control the class well
- Good for encouraging students to focus
- The learning process is easier to do
- Learning activities can be followed no matter how many students
Disadvantages of lecture method
- Students are usually passive because they only listen
- Learning and learning activities are usually boring
- Students who are more focused on the visual learning system will usually have difficulty receiving lessons
- The learning process will only focus on understanding words only.
2. Demonstration method
Furthermore, there is a demonstration learning method. This is a teaching method that is carried out in the form of practicum, this will make students and students see first hand what they are learning. Usually, this method is more interesting and makes students more focused on their lessons.
Also read; Understanding Analytical Exposition Text
However, the demonstration method also has its advantages and disadvantages
The advantages of the demonstration method
- Science is easier to understand because it is through direct practice
- Can reduce misunderstandings because they are directly dealing with concrete evidence
- Students usually find it easier to understand the information conveyed
Disadvantages of demonstration methods
- There is not much time so that not all subject matter can be demonstrated
- The teaching staff must be experts and very familiar with the material being taught
- This is only effective if it is done with a few students.
3. Discussion Learning Methods
There are also discussion methods or discussion learning methods. This is a method that invites or puts forward students to discuss in order to get a goal. Of course, this method is applied by forming discussion groups between students in class.
Among the advantages of this learning method are encouraging students to think critically, have the courage to express opinions and learn to respect the opinions of others.
In addition, there are also drawbacks, namely that only in the dominance of students who like to talk, discussion themes are usually limited and only suitable or can form a small group.
4. The Lecture Method Plus
The lecture plus method is actually the same as regular lecture but in the plus lecture it is accompanied by other methods of conveying information. The form of a plus lecture is like the lecture method plus questions and answers, the lecture method plus discussions and assignments, as well as the lecture method plus demonstrations and exercises.
In addition to the learning methods that we have described above, there are many other learning methods that a teacher must understand so that they can take the conclusions of which forms and models of learning methods are suitable for students.
Other learning methods are such as:
- Recitation Learning Method
- Experimental Method
- The Tourism Work Method
- Debate Method
- Design Method
- Exercise Method
- Cooperative Script Method
- Mind Maping Learning Method
- Discovery Learning Method
- Inquiry Learning Methods, and
- Role Sharing Method
- Learning Method Functions
The learning method has its own function in carrying out the learning function. According to experts, there are several functions of the learning method, here we will see one by one.
1. As a means of extrinsic motivation
What is motivation? Motivation is the soul’s impulse to do something, be it done consciously or unconsciously. In learning or teaching, motivation is very important because the process of providing knowledge to students will not run well if it is not supported by good enthusiasm.
The learning method itself can be a means to stimulate enthusiasm for learning if the method applied is suitable and liked by children.
2. As a learning strategy
The learning method is a tactic and strategy used to make the learning atmosphere more active and maximized. So, one of its functions is as a strategy in carrying students away in the lesson.
So, the learning method includes a strategy that the teacher applies to students in order to achieve the desired target or goal. If the teacher is able to have the best method for his students, then the learning strategy applied is considered successful.
3. Tools to achieve goals
The purpose of the learning method is none other than a tool to achieve goals, here it also acts as a atmosphere in education to be able to convey the subject matter properly to students.
If the learning process is carried out without paying attention to the method, the value of the learning will have less meaning. The first thing that happens is that students are not enthusiastic about learning and from the other hand the teacher will also be overwhelmed in providing information to students.
Those are some of the functions of learning methods, so it is very important for us to have a special method that we think is good and effective in providing knowledge to students. So, all teachers or instructors must have good learning methods according to their abilities.