What is the meaning of theater, have you ever watched theater or heard of it? If so, do you know what theater is? Ok, if someone asks that the answer is as follows.
Theater art is a type of art in the form of drama and is shown or staged on a stage or stage. More specifically, theater is a drama that displays human behavior in the form of motion, singing, dance and is presented with dialogue, acting and the role of the players. The word “theater” itself comes from the Greek word called “theatron”, which means a place or theater.
Theater can be interpreted broadly and narrowly. Broadly speaking, the meaning of theater is art in the form of all acting scenes and the roles of players shown on stage and watched by the audience. Examples of theater arts are ketoprak, sintren, mayang, acrobat and slapstick.
More narrowly, theater art is the art of showing the journey of a person’s life through the role of the performers in such a way as according to a script that has been made and displayed in front of the public.
Definition of Theater
Meanwhile, the meaning of theater based on the large Indonesian dictionary (KBBI) is:
– Building or room where films, plays, etc.
– A large room with a row of chairs at the front and back like a lecture hall
– Drama performance as an art form and a profession, drama and theatrical arts.
The theater that we are discussing and explaining is often also called DRAMA, so what does drama mean? According to the large Indonesian dictionary, drama is:
– Drama is a combination of poetry and prose which is expected to be able to describe a person’s character and life through behavior, or the dialogue that is performed
– Stories that involve or relate to conflict and emotions, and are specific to theater performances
– sad things or events
According to experts, theater and or theater arts are as follows:
- Moulton: He said that theater is a life story depicted by movements
- Balthazar Vallhagen: An art that depicts human character and nature through movement
- Budianta: A literary genre that is physically displayed verbally by the dialogue of the existing characters.
- Ferdinand Brunetierre: Will exercised by motion and action
- Handayani and Wildan Arts: Theater is a form of composition based on two branches of art, namely literary arts and performing arts. So, the drama is divided into two, namely what is written and the drama that is performed.
- Anne Civardi: A story told through movement and words.
The definition of theater is very much explaining about it, but of the many, we can summarize that theater art is art that comes from scripts that are made and then dramatized on stage for many people to watch.
Historically, theater arts began to develop since 2500 years ago, but the style and form of theater around the world varies. Some of the most famous theatrical arts in the world are Roman theater, Western European theater, Greek theater arts, African theater arts, Renaissance theater arts, Spanish golden period theater arts, English-Elizabethan theater arts, Baroque French theater arts, Islamic theater arts Middle Eastern and Asian theater arts.
In Indonesia, the history of theater arts has been started since the existence of humans and human interactions. In the past, this theater was something that was done at traditional ceremonies and according to them it was a form of gratitude for the abundance of hunting results. Each region in the archipelago has different theater arts according to their respective cultures.
Not only that, for people who at that time believed in animism and dynamism, theater was also played and played to summon skirts and supernatural powers.
Types of Traditional Theater in Indonesia
Theater in Indonesia has been around for a long time and has various forms according to culture. However, traditional theater that was practiced in the past is still closely related to religion and traditional ceremonies. The following are various types of traditional Indonesian theater that are still developing today.
1. Puppet people
Wayang orang is a theater art from Central Java. Basically, this art is the same as theater or wayang played by a puppeteer. It’s just that wayang orang or in Javanese is called wayang wong played by people and played by people directly without using props.
This wayang wong theater art was created by Sultan Hamangkurat I in 1731, this art combines local arts, dance and music. In addition, the important thing to pay attention to is the costume or uniform that is worn.
Also see: East Java Traditional House
This is a traditional Malay theater art made from a fusion of art and dance culture. To be precise, the makyong theater was the art of the Riau people and it was very popular during the Johor royal era. The makyong theater combines instruments, vocals, dance and dialogue and there are elements of ritual as offerings.
Furthermore, Indonesian traditional theater is Randai. It combines drama, dance, song, and silat in it. It is a type of theater from the Minangkabau and aims to provide advice and lessons through art. The advice and moral messages contained therein were adapted from the Minangkabau folklore. In the early days of its development, Randai was an art that accompanied the reading of gurindam or rhymes which was bound by certain rules.
This is art in the form of theater from East Java. The contents are about daily teaching accompanied by gamelan and using the typical East Javanese language. The delivery usually uses funny or comical language so that every time you watch Ludruk theater you will definitely laugh out loud. A theater similar to Ludruk is a ketoprak originating from Central Java.
The difference between ketoprak and ludruk is the content of the story. Ketoprak is about folk tales or legends, while Ludruk is stories in everyday life or written by certain people.
Ketoprak is a theater art that originated from Central Java, precisely in Surakarta and then developed in Yogyakarta. Previously, the ketoprak game was accompanied by a mortar punch, but now it’s using gamelan. The stories that are told are about folk tales and contain moral advice and teachings.
Also See: 20 Best Indonesian Religious Films
This is art from Jakarta or Betawi, this performance usually begins with a gambang Kromong and stories between people. Usually Lenong performances are accompanied by subtle satire and use Betawi language.
Lenong used to be only played like singing, but now it has started to be performed and has even started to enter TV.
That is a brief explanation of theater arts, the types of theater and the history of the origin of theater, especially about traditional theater in Indonesia which is still valid today and is often performed. Hopefully it will increase our knowledge about theater and performing arts that have existed since a long time ago.