Indonesia is a vast country with thousands of tribal and cultural islands. One of the cultures is the traditional musical instruments of each region. Traditional musical instruments have names and uses according to their respective regions. For example in Aceh, there is a musical instrument called seurune kale which functions as a musical instrument used when there are various traditional ceremonies. Not only is it rich in music, but Indonesia is also a country that has arts in the field of dance. In fact, each region has its own dance art.
In this article, we will review traditional musical instruments from various regions in Indonesia, the goal is to enrich the knowledge of the nation’s children with their own national culture. Immediately, we see one by one the following musical instruments from various regions in Indonesia.
Traditional Musical Instruments in Indonesia
1. Serune kale (Aceh)
Serune kale is a traditional musical instrument from Aceh, this instrument has an Aerofon sound that comes from the wind. The way to use seurune kale is the same as using other wind music, by blowing it from the base and covering (moving your fingers) the serune holes to produce a beautiful sound. To be able to get a beautiful sound, a seurune kale blower must have perfect teeth, otherwise the wind is not strong so it is not optimal. See the following serune kale image.
2. Aramba (Pulau Nias)
This is a traditional musical instrument from North Sumatra, Nias. Aramba has an ideophone sound, the sound of an ideophone is the sound that comes from the target material for making this instrument. To produce the sound of this instrument is to hit it using a stick, at first glance this is similar to the way of hitting a drum but this tool is not made of leather.
3. Traditional musical instruments: Saluang
Saluang is a musical instrument originating from West Sumatra. This traditional music has an Aerofon sound (sound that comes from a gust of wind). Just like the flute or serune kale, this tool is blown with the sound and tone settings located in the movement of the finger that closes or opens a hole in the saluang.
4. Lute musical instrument (Gambus)
For those of you as a lover of Islamic Ramadan songs, you may be familiar with this instrument. Gambus is a traditional musical instrument from Riau, this instrument has a Kordofun sound or a sound that arises as a result of strings or strings. The process of playing the gambus is usually accompanied by beating the drum. Oh, yes the strings used are usually between 3 strands to 12 strands.
5. Traditional musical instruments: Serangko
SERANGKO is a Jambi traditional musical instrument. The shape is almost the same as the flute, but this musical instrument is made from buffalo horn. The use of SERANGKO by the Jambi community is not for playing ceremonies or singing songs but rather to inform the public that something has happened. So, every time there is a sound of a stamp, it indicates that something is happening.
The accordion is a traditional musical instrument from South Sumatra. The sound of this instrument is called an aerophone or the sound that comes from a gust of wind or a breath. This instrument is blown and moves both hands to adjust the high and low notes.
7. Traditional musical instruments: Doll
This musical instrument comes from the Bengkulu area, the way to use a doll is to hit it so that the sound that comes out depends on how it hits it, this is called the sound of a membrane. The striking of this musical instrument does not use hands as in a tambourine but uses a special bat.
8. Musical Instrument Bende
The next musical instrument from Lampung is called Bende. This musical instrument has an Ideafon sound, which is the sound that comes out of the basic material for making the musical instrument itself. Just like the Doll instrument, the way to use it is to hit it using a special pukus instrument.
9. Gendang Melayu
The Malay drum is a traditional musical instrument from Bangka Belitung, it has a membrane sound, which is the sound that comes from hitting a soft area using the palm of the hand like hitting a tambourine.
10. Gendang Panjang (Long drum)
There is also a musical instrument called a Gendang Panjang. This is a traditional musical instrument from the Riau archipelago. It also sounds Membranofon, which is the sound that comes from the result of a hit with the palm of the hand on the soft part of the drum.
11. Angklung musical instrument
Angklung is a traditional musical instrument from West Java which has an Ideofon sound. This angklung is played by hand on the arrangement of the tools to produce the desired tone.
Tehyen is a traditional musical instrument from Jakarta which has a chordophone sound, which is the sound that comes out by being rubbed on the strings. To make it easier to understand, this tool plays almost the same way as playing the violin.
13. Gendang Musical Instrument
The gendang is a traditional musical instrument from the special region of Yogyakarta, almost the same as the drum of this musical instrument played by hitting on the soft part. It sounds called Ideofon because it appears as a result of hitting it.
The gamelan is another musical instrument from the island of Java, to be precise, Central Java. The sound of gamelan is an ideofon and it is played by beating it with a bat, but it has its own way so that it can produce the sound and tone that is expected.
15. Traditional musical instruments: Bonang
Bonang is a musical instrument from East Java, this instrument has an Ideofon sound and how to play it is by hitting. This is part of a set of Javanese gamelan, Bonang itself is divided into two bonang barung and bonang successors.
16. Drum: Banten musical instrument
Just like the Yogyakarta area, Banten also has a drum but it is different from the original Yoyakarta drum. It reads Membranofon and how to play it is by tapping with your palms on the soft part.
17. Genceng: Balinese musical instruments
The next traditional musical instrument is from Bali, it has a distinctive ideophone sound. The way to play it is by placing the two tools on both palms, then banging them together so they make a distinctive sound.
The serunai is a musical instrument from West Nusa Tenggra, Indonesia which has an Aerofon sound. The way to play this serunai is by blowing it and to produce a beautiful sound it is necessary to adjust it with the fingers that close and open the holes along the body of the serunai.
Sansando is a regional musical instrument of East Nusa Tenggara with a chordofon sound. Precisely this instrument is the origin of the island of Rote, NTT. In the regional language Sasando means Sasandu, which is a device that vibrates and sounds. Sasando has a main part that looks like a tube and is made of bamboo and in the middle it is circular from top to bottom of the blocks where the strings that are stretched in the tube rests on.
20. Traditional Japen musical instruments
Japen is a traditional musical instrument from Central Kalimantan and is among the most popular among other musical instruments there. Japen is almost similar to a lute instrument because the playing system is plucked. Likewise, the tone produced by Japen is similar to that of the lute. When you hear the sound of this instrument, maybe you will be reminded of the Chinese culture.
21. Traditional musical instruments, Tuma
Tuma is a musical instrument from West Kalimantan which is played by tapping and the sound is a Membranofon, a musical instrument that produces sound from the vibrations of the skin being hit.
The tuma musical instrument is often played during traditional dance events along with other types of musical instruments. Tuma is made of wood with a length of 1 meter and a diameter of about 25 cm. Ox skin is used as the membrane and the sound comes out of the vibrations of the skin when it is hit.
22. Sampe musical instrument
Sampe is a musical instrument from the Dayak tribe in East Kalimantan and has a Kordofon sound. The way to play this instrument is by picking it almost the same as the guitar, but there is a difference where it is plucked with both hands. There are 3 strings sampe and 4 and so on, unlike the guitar which has 6 strings.
The sampe musical instrument serves to express the contents of feelings, whether happy, cheerful, sad or sad. In the past, if you played it during the day, the resulting rhythm tended to be happy, happy. However, if Sampe is played at night, the resulting rhythm tends to be sad, sad and serene.
23. The Essential musical instrument
Panting is a traditional musical instrument originating from South Kalimantan and the sound is Kordofon. The panting is a musical instrument similar to the Arabic lute but smaller in shape and size.
Among the functions of Panting are entertainment music, education because the music contains advice, and as religious music.
Furthermore, the traditional musical instrument is Kolintang from North Sulawesi. This instrument is played at o’clock so that the sound is an ideophone. Initially, Kolintanbg only consisted of wooden logs that were placed in a row above the player’s feet, by stretching the legs forward and placing the wood between the legs, then the human feet were replaced with banana trunks until now using wooden poles.
This traditional musical instrument is closely related to Minahasa culture, they use this music to worship the spirits of their ancestors.
25. Keso musical instrument
Keso is a musical instrument from South Sulawesi, especially Toraja, it is played with a string, this instrument has a Chordofon sound. At first glance, this musical instrument is similar to the Javanese Rebab musical instrument. This Keso Keso musical instrument has only two strings and is played by striking it so that it produces a beautiful and pleasant sound.
This musical instrument is made from coconut shells as a container for sound and bamboo and strings. Based on information from Toraja parents who are still alive today, this musical instrument was a toy for Toraja people in the past, but over time, this musical instrument has almost disappeared in the community, even young people today have never heard the name of this instrument.
Ganda is a traditional Indonesian musical instrument from Central Sulawesi. The way to play a dual musical instrument is by tapping it with your palm so that it makes a membrane sound. Ganda or also called Kanda, is made of wood such as small Marwas and a membrane made of cowhide.
27. Alat musik LadoLado
A musical instrument from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia that is played with strings and sounds Ideofon. This musical instrument has a similarity with a lute but it does not use strings but uses wood or bamboo which is split and played by striking on it.
28. Ganda Gorontalo Musical Instrument
Gorontalo also has a traditional musical instrument called Ganda, the name is the same as a traditional musical instrument from Central Sulawesi, but the shape is definitely different. In order to produce a pleasant sound, this instrument is hit with the palm of the hand and it sounds like a membrane.
29. Lute Musical Instrument
Furthermore, in the list of traditional musical instruments there is a lute from West Sulawesi. It reads a chordophone and is played by strumming it on the string.
30. Nafiri Musical instrument
The Nafiri is a musical instrument from Maluku which has a membrane sound. how to play this instrument is by tapping it on the skin.
31. FU musical instrument
FU is a musical instrument from North Maluku that has an Aerofon sound, the way to play FU is by blowing it in the open hole. This musical instrument is unique because it is made of shells. In the past, this instrument was used when traveling to the forests and they blew this instrument when lost so that friends could find out its existence. The shells used are said to have come from Saumlaki, Dobo, Aru and Banda Islands.
A musical instrument from West Java that has a membrane sound. This tool is almost the same as a drum but it is hit using a bat.
33. Tifa’s traditional musical instrument
Tifa is music from the Papua region that has a membrane sound. The Tifa musical instrument is played by striking it with the palm of the hand. The tifa musical instrument is made of wood with a hole in the middle and one end covered with deer skin. This is where the palms are hit. Usually the body parts of this tool are made beautifully with carvings.
34. Guoto: West Papua musical instruments
West Papua has a musical instrument called Guoto. This tool has a Kordofon sound and is played by plucking the strings.
Gong is a musical instrument from West Java that is played with the beat, the thing that comes out is a membrane. Because of its large size, the gong is usually tied to wood. This gong is well known in Southeast Asia as a traditional musical instrument. The gong that has been hammered cannot play its tone but after rinsing it can. If you can’t, the Gong musical instrument will be scraped off the bronze until it becomes thinner.
The next traditional musical instrument from Indonesia is Jengglong. It also comes from West Java and this tool is a small gong that is played as an accompaniment to the sound of a gong. The jengglong instrument also functions for bass; Buffer the song, namely as an affirmation of the melody on the Bonang musical instrument.
Kulanter is also a musical instrument from West Java that has a membrane sound. This is a musical instrument that accompanies the drums and is played by striking.
A rebab is a musical instrument similar to a bow that is played by being rubbed like a violin. Rebab is a musical instrument from West Java.
Furthermore, a traditional musical instrument from Indonesia is Talempong. This is a musical instrument from West Sumatra, Minangkabau which is played with the beat. The shape is somewhat similar to the Bonang musical instrument from Central Java.
Talempong is a musical instrument from West Sumatra which is made of brass, stone and some made of wood. Talempong musical instruments are usually used when there is a welcoming ceremony or performance accompanied by dances such as the typical plate dance. In playing this instrument, you need to be careful, starting from issuing “do” to “si” tones.
40. Pupuik Batang Padi musical instrument
It also includes musical instruments from West Sumatra, padang. These are made from old and booky rice stalks. To play it is by blowing it. Usually played singly without other musical instruments, but some are played in collaboration with other traditional music such as in weddings.
It also includes traditional West Sumatran musical instruments made from rice, wood and bamboo. The way to play it is the same as pupuik rice stalks, namely by blowing them.
42. Tambua & Tansa
Both are musical instruments from West Sumatra which are made of wood and have a hole in the middle. Playing it is by beating it simultaneously so that it makes a pleasant sound.
43. Burdah atau Gendang Oku
Burdah is a musical instrument from South Sumatra, which is made of wood or leather. It is similar to a tambourine musical instrument and is played by striking. Another name for the burdah is the Gendang Oku.
44. Traditional musical instruments: Tenun
Apart from the Burdah or Gendang Oku, another musical instrument from South Sumatra is the weaving. This musical instrument is made of wood in the shape of a triangle. Why is it called Tenun? The reason is quite rational, this instrument usually accompanies mothers who are weaving clothes.
45. Kenong Basemah
Kenong Basemah is a traditional musical instrument from South Sumatra which is played with the hit, this instrument is made of copper so that it makes a beautiful sound and an interesting rhythm to hear.
The traditional musical instrument of Tebangan also comes from South Sumatra and is almost the same as the tambourine musical instrument. The way to play it is to hit it with your palm. In South Sumatra this instrument is most influential in areas with strong Malay nuances.
Caklemong is another traditional music from Bangka Belitung besides the Gendang Malay. This instrument has a concave downward shape. Playing Caklemong is by hitting it using a special hit tool.
48. Genggong Musical Instrument
Genggong is a musical instrument from South Sumatra and is similar to a harmonica instrument. The way to play it is by blowing and holding it with your left hand and the side is blown like a harmonica. Genggong musical instruments are made of wood, bamboo, palm fronds, or with loga. This includes the ideofoon instruments that are played with strings. This tool has actually spread in various worlds out of nowhere.
The picture of an earliest person that are holding a genggong and blowing it appears in a Chinese painting that according to Wikipedia was made in 4 BC. There are archaeological remains in Europe that look like genggong also mentioned to be from the same year.
49. Traditional musical instruments: Gambangan
Gambangan is a musical instrument from Bangka Belitung and is made from 7 pieces of wood. Playing it must be hit hard with wood to produce the right sound. Gambangan musical instrument made of lepung wood or light meranti wood. The use of wood is very instrumental in providing a pleasant sound. If the wood used is hard and heavy, of course the sound will also be different.
The gambangan musical instrument is played as a form of entertaining yourself while waiting for the rice to turn yellow in the fields. In addition, the strains of gambangan are also used to repel rice pests such as rats and monkeys, which are often annoying.
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50. Kompang musical instruments
In the next sequence, a traditional musical instrument from Indonesia is Kompang. This musical instrument is also similar to a tambourine and how to play it also by beating.
Kompang is one of the most popular musical instruments in Malay society and includes a musical instrument called the drum. The skin that is used as a place for striking is usually from the skin of a female goat. But now this is no longer the case, because a lot of it is produced from cowhide, buffalo and even synthetic sap.